Ved > Articles > All

 Title : Administration of Nation in Yajurveda Author : Shri Manohar Vidhyalankar

Read In Hindi

http://www.vedpradip.com/articlecontent.php?aid=390&linkid=1&catid=&subcatid=0&vedid=5

Yajurveda is supposed to be the veda, describing the duties of ‘Grihasthashram’ – ( The family- ties). The people of this Grihastha poried, are divided into four (4) Varnas, (castes) and together, they from the society. Hence, Yajur. includes the principles necessary to control this society. The Government control is necessary for smooth functioning of society. Hence, this veda describes, here and ther, the principles of Administration, and the duties of the King, and the citizens. In this part of ‘Yajurveda Swadhyaya’ (continuous and regular study of vedas), attempts have been made to quote the Chants in Yajurveds, and describe the Administration, based on these Mantras.

KING – THE HEAD OF ADMINISTRATION

Whether the administration is Democratic, or controlled by the king, the chikf is know as the ‘King’. In ‘Rajtantra’, the king is hereditary, and the King, his principles, which means, his officers and servants, have the importance. The voice of citizens is inferior, in this system. No much attention is paid to their comforts.

In ‘Prajatantra’ (Democracy), the king is elected form the society, and he pays the same attention, to the comforts of citizens, as he pays to himself, or his technique.

The King is supposed to be Representative of the God. This implies that he should be, as just as God, he should foresee, the happiness and sorrows of citizens, and removing their dis-comforts, he should give them, more facilities, and thereby, make his Nation prosperous. He should not consider himself, the Ruler or Lord of citizen, but like mother and father, he should sacrifice his own pleasures, and attempt for the comforts of the citizens. This is the reason, why the meaning of may Chants of Vedas, is related to the ‘King’, on the Social or Materialistic basis, while, on Spiritual basis, or ‘Adhidaivic’ (Miseries are brought by Fate) basis, it means ‘The Supreme Power’. Therefore, for the Representative of God, or the true King, the Veda instructs that he should wish the welfare of all, and bestow it. By this, the citizens would like to make him only, the king always, and during his regime, the Nation should not experience any down-fall.

Yajurveda is supposed to be the veda, describing the duties of ‘Grihasthashram’ – ( The family- ties). The people of this Grihastha poried, are divided into four (4) Varnas, (castes) and together, they from the society. Hence, Yajur. includes the principles necessary to control this society. The Government control is necessary for smooth functioning of society. Hence, this veda describes, here and ther, the principles of Administration, and the duties of the King, and the citizens. In this part of ‘Yajurveda Swadhyaya’ (continuous and regular study of vedas), attempts have been made to quote the Chants in Yajurveds, and describe the Administration, based on these Mantras.

KING – THE HEAD OF ADMINISTRATION

Whether the administration is Democratic, or controlled by the king, the chikf is know as the ‘King’. In ‘Rajtantra’, the king is hereditary, and the King, his principles, which means, his officers and servants, have the importance. The voice of citizens is inferior, in this system. No much attention is paid to their comforts.

In ‘Prajatantra’ (Democracy), the king is elected form the society, and he pays the same attention, to the comforts of citizens, as he pays to himself, or his technique.

The King is supposed to be Representative of the God. This implies that he should be, as just as God, he should foresee, the happiness and sorrows of citizens, and removing their dis-comforts, he should give them, more facilities, and thereby, make his Nation prosperous. He should not consider himself, the Ruler or Lord of citizen, but like mother and father, he should sacrifice his own pleasures, and attempt for the comforts of the citizens. This is the reason, why the meaning of may Chants of Vedas, is related to the ‘King’, on the Social or Materialistic basis, while, on Spiritual basis, or ‘Adhidaivic’ (Miseries are brought by Fate) basis, it means ‘The Supreme Power’. Therefore, for the Representative of God, or the true King, the Veda instructs that he should wish the welfare of all, and bestow it. By this, the citizens would like to make him only, the king always, and during his regime, the Nation should not experience any down-fall.

"Sushlok.....Satrajan" (YAJAR. 20-4)
"Wishvstva..... Adhibhrsht" (YAJAR 12-21)
"Ya Pranto .....Videm" (YAJAR. 13 – 3)


THE PERIOD OF THE KING

The principle of holding the king, as the Representative or the part of Almighty, gives the hint, that, if he shirks from his duties, and indulges in his own selfishness, or that of his relatives, he should be dethroned, and new one should be appointed. The Veda has quoted "Wishi Raja Pratishthit" (YAJUR. 20-9).

s long as, the citizens are happy, the King is respected and only till then, he should remain the Chief of Administration. This is supported by Atharva, 6 – 87- 2. It states that if the King of "Rajtantra", is there, then until his death, or till he has enough strength to run the Administration, he should remain firm as the mountain, and save the Nation, and should not step down from this post, while, the king of ‘Praja-Tantra’, should carry on this duty, till the completion of his period.

"Ehevaidhi......Rashtramudharya" (ATHARVA)

"Aatmaha ... Madhibhrasht" (YAJUR. 12 – 21)

In ancient period, the king was the Emperor. His will was supreme, in all the Departments of Administration. But, gradually, on the basis of experience, the posts of Prime Minister, Chief of the Army, President of Parliament, Chief Justice, and the Heads of Departments like Finance, Education, Health, etc., were created, and the powers of the King, were divided.

Just as the ‘God’ is one supreme king, and Agni, Vayu, Aditya, etc. are Lords of one particular field, similarly, these Heads of Departments, are the different forms of the King.

What are the virtues, necessary for the King? or, on the basis of which virtues, should the king be appointed? Can he be dethroned, if he becomes void of these virtues? Let us think over this. The virtues are described in various styles, in Veda. The duties of the King are described, some times, in the form of virtues possessed by Gods, or in the form of prayers, or as the order.

Who should be chosen as King, and who should be accepted "Yajurveda Bhashya", the essence of chants in this Veda. Let us view, a few examples.

(1) It is proper for all persons, to appoint such a man, as the Ruler, who will give donations, to the deserving persons only, who will not waste the wealth, will educate all, who was controlled his passions, with the help of Bramhavayishrim, who is lustrous, by performing different Yoges; one who is adorned with auspicious virtues and deeds, just like the Sun; and one who will protect his subjects like the father. (YAJUR. 12 – 22)

(2) The Almighty advises – O ‘ men, choose as the Ruler, one having praise – worthy qualities, and deeds, who is capable of protecting the Nation, and thereby make trustworthy Empire. (YAJU. 9 – 25)

(3) O’ citizens, one who is educated by intellectual parents, who is of noble birth, having best virtues, who has control ever passions, who has practiced bramhacharya (bramhacharya) upto 48 years, and become benevolent, and fully strong is Body and Soul, who will protect citizens righteously; who is clever and affectionate, may be considered as the Ruler, and thereby establish the Empire. (YAJUR. 9 –40 )

(4) ‘Som Ramamahe’ (YAJUR. 9- 26) Among the Learned Scholers, one who has followed Bramhacharya for 48 years, and has the qualities of the Sun, should accepted as the King, and the true virtues should be followed. Two conclusions are derived from this.

Generally, one should not be appointed as the King, if he is below 50 years of age.

(5) " Nishasad....Sukratu’/ (YAJUR. 10 – 29)
The King who is just as Varun, in nourishing his citizens, can occupy the throne for a pretty long period, for running Kingdom, through his virtual resolves, benevolence, and good deeds.

(6) "N.......wacha’/ (YAJUR. 6 – 31)
O’ King, none other than you, gives comforts to the citizens. Whatever I am saying is truth. I wish that, regarding you, I should always state, that the meaning of this Chant, given by Swami Dayanand, is worth consideration.


ADMINISTRATION OF NATION, IN YAJURVEDA

The King nourishes the subjects, just as the Life protects the body, with affection. Just as the SUN units VAYU and VIDYUT, and punishes the cluds, to produce RAIN, and makes all the people happy, the Ruler should produce war – materials, destroy the enemies, and in order to create happiness in the citizens, he should protect the Dharmatmas, and terrify the wicked. ( 7 –39 )

(1) Just as the GOD is the impartial friend of all, the President should be the righteous King, and should praise the praise – worthy, censure the blamable, punish the wicked, and protect the nobles, and prove the fulfillment of desires of all. ( 6 – 37)

(2) One who always speaks the truth, is worth becoming the King. As long as, this does not take place, the citizens and the Administrators of the Ruler, will not have mutual confidence, and cannot make one another happy. (YAJUR. 9- 12)

DUTIES OF THE KING

(1) "Bramha --------Druhan" (YAJUR. 6 –3 )
The citizens, who have to face life – long darkness, in the form of calamities, (Dirghtama was a sage, who was born blind) and who wish to distruct the vindictive elements, from the country, pray to the dominating King Vishnvat, O’ Rajan, you strengthen the belief in GOD, Veda Vijnan, and Brahmi Shakti, and spread it. Make strong the Nation, and its protective Shatra Shakti (strength of warriors). You also strengthen Vaishya Shakti, which is the life and tonic of the Nation, and fulfils all the necessities of life. Strengthen the remaining subjects, apart from these 3 VARNAS (Cates), and strengthen, other strengths wished for, and different Sciences, and make this country prosperous.

(2) The Learned people, who have faced darkness, for a long period, pray to King VARUN, who makes them free from sorrows, "Mapo-----Dwishm"/ (YAJUR. 6 – 22)

O’ VARUN, make such an arrangement, that the citizens will never be sorrowful, and troubled for the want of water and food. By importing such goods from different places, keep us free from that trouble. The Cows are supposed to be, not fit for slaughter, and they avert the Sins and Sorrows of others. We swear that we will not slaughter them; but you keep up free, from the want of materials obtained from them. The food and water should be beneficial, for we citizens, as the friends. But, in the case of those amongst us, who betray the Nation, and whom the whole Nation holds guilty, these materials should be unavailable, and harmful, like the enemy. "Indrashchya ----- Raja/ (YAJUR. 6 – 37)

The word "Daridra Ghumakkad Prai.Vai.di Suryakant", implies that, it is the duty of the King, to, wander about, among the citizens, in his own apparent form, or in disguise, and supervise, and supervise himself, their miseries, and difficulties.

( 4 ) "Agane....Punscrewdhi"/ (YAJUR. 4 – 14)
O’, leader of the nation, we pray, that you should always be alert, so that we can always be joyful. Protect us, without committing any blunder. If, at all we follow the wrong path, you can warn us, again.

(5) "Yatha....Asat"/ (YAJUR. 16 – 4)
O’ RUDRA, you make such an arrangement, that, every living – being of the Nation, holds the healthy body, and benevolent mind.

(6) "Agane....Asi"/ (YAJUR. 9 – 26)
O’, Lord of the Nation, you always keep in mind, the welfare of the citizens, and speak them, in sweet tongue, because, only you are capable, of increasing their wealth.

DUTIES OF THE KING, AND CITIZENS

(1) "Shatracha....Hinsi"/ (YAJUR. 20 – 1).

O’ Citizens, you are the pillars of the Nation. O’ King, your are the centre of the Nation. Hence, both of you should vow, that I will never be violent towards you, I will do not injustice, or oppression to you, and you should never commit violence towards me, and you will not deceive me. If, this takes place, both the King and his Empire, will last long.

"Yono .... Bhasmasakura"/ (YAJUR. 11 – 80 ).
"Sahastrani ..... Mukhakrudhi" / (YAJUR. 16 – 53 )

Your soldiers hold a number of Weapons and Missiles. You are their Commander. With their help, you make them (enemy) flee away, turning their backs. Do not stop at this point only, but, make aggression over them, and completely reduce them to ashes, whereby, their hearts will be full with grief. and they will be in darkness.

They should find no way, to get out of that state. No One should be able, to save himself. Pick up, and destroy them.

"Abhiprehi ... Sachantam" / (YAJUR. 11 – 48)
"Gachhami...Kanchatochhiyaha" / (YAJUR. 11 – 45)
"Rashtra Ke ... Yosmandharvati" / (YAJUR. 1 – 8)
"Avasthira ... Shatrunam" / (YAJUR. 13 – 13)
"Sajurindrena ... Shatrunam" / (YAJUR. 29 – 55)

Those who betray the Nation, should be brought to death. Those who betray the gentlemen, should also be punished. You increase your Defensive Power, and punish those who trouble the Citizens; and you also punish, their relatives and co-workers, taking them as the enemies. Find our the enemies of the Nation, with the help of Intelligence Branch, and exile them, and keep away, SWAMI DAYANAND has stated in the meaning of YAJUR. 30-5, "Promote the Gentlemen, and finding out the Wicked, thrash them, and fine them.
ADMINISTRATION OF NATION, IN YAJURVEDA

SWAMI DAYANAND, has stated, in the meaning of 29 – 55 chants, --

The King and his subjects, should mutually vow, that, they will behave with one another, in such a manner, that we will be protected, and the pleasures of all, will increase.
"Agani ... Apha" / (YAJUR. 23 – 11)
The Chant describes the instruments of complete victory, of the President PRAJAPATI. The Commander of the Ground Forces, (ARMY) should be dependent, in performing the brutal deeds, as per orders, similar to God AGNI, who is the Lord of the World. The Ruler of the Nation, indulges in Religious Wars, with his help, and the King becomes victorious Lord of World, established by AGNIDEV. But, there is one term of agreement, for this victory, that the King himself, his Commander and Soldiers, should eat and drink, the naturally available substances, and should perform their own duties.

The Commander of the Air Forces, should be agreeable, and should have fore – sight , like God VAYU, the Lord of the SKY. The Ruler of the Nation, fights the Religious Wars, making him the excuse, and conquers the SKY, established by him. But, there is the restriction, that he himself, and his warriors should be sober and ascetic.

The Commander of the Navy, should be fore – sighted, and agreeable as God SUN, who is the Lord of the SEA, and the SKY, and who nourishes the people, by producing food, through the medium of RAIN, that is created, by taking Sea – water, and making it thousand – fold. The Ruler of the Nation,

uses him as the medium, to destroy the enemy, and create peace and prosperity, among the subjects, and maintain his success, in the form of the duties, and makes the established world, in his favour. But, there is one condition, that the King, his Commander, and every soldier, must be sober, should be happy, with the natural food and water, and should perform their duties neatly.THE IMPOSITION OF TAXES FOR ADMINISTRATION

In order to run the Administration, in a good manner, the Money is necessary. The King imposes taxes, in various forms, and collects money. The Chants of YAJUR. do not clearly state the description of, any form of the tax. But, Swami Dayanand has discussed almost all the Taxes, while writing the meaning of Mantras, in his discussion of Vedas. Some examples are quoted below, which are not in his language, but, in the present current language, but without changing the matter.

"Agani ... Apha" / (YAJUR. 23 – 11)
The Chant describes the instruments of complete victory, of the President PRAJAPATI. The Commander of the Ground Forces, (ARMY) should be dependent, in performing the brutal deeds, as per orders, similar to God AGNI, who is the Lord of the World. The Ruler of the Nation, indulges in Religious Wars, with his help, and the King becomes victorious Lord of World, established by AGNIDEV. But, there is one term of agreement, for this victory, that the King himself, his Commander and Soldiers, should eat and drink, the naturally available substances, and should perform their own duties.

The Commander of the Air Forces, should be agreeable, and should have fore – sight , like God VAYU, the Lord of the SKY. The Ruler of the Nation, fights the Religious Wars, making him the excuse, and conquers the SKY, established by him. But, there is the restriction, that he himself, and his warriors should be sober and ascetic.
The Commander of the Navy, should be fore – sighted, and agreeable as God SUN, who is the Lord of the SEA, and the SKY, and who nourishes the people, by producing food, through the medium of RAIN, that is created, by taking Sea – water, and making it thousand – fold. The Ruler of the Nation, uses him as the medium, to destroy the enemy, and create peace and prosperity, among the subjects, and maintain his success, in the form of the duties, and makes the established world, in his favour. But, there is one condition, that the King, his Commander, and every soldier, must be sober, should be happy, with the natural food and water, and should perform their duties neatly.THE IMPOSITION OF TAXES FOR ADMINISTRATION

In order to run the Administration, in a good manner, the Money is necessary. The King imposes taxes, in various forms, and collects money. The Chants of YAJUR. do not clearly state the description of, any form of the tax. But, Swami Dayanand has discussed almost all the Taxes, while writing the meaning of Mantras, in his discussion of Vedas. Some examples are quoted below, which are not in his language, but, in the present current language, but without changing the matter.

( 1 ) The citizens residing under the King’s rule, should pay the taxes of their articles, and the King should punish the wicked animals and persons, and persuade them to follow the rules of citizenship. (YAJUR. 6 – 6)

The Income – Tax, Wealth Tax, Excise, Import – Export Tax, Production Tax, Agricultural Tax, etc. cant be included in this.

( 2 ) It is the duty of citizens, to give the proper part of all commodities, to the Government authorities. (YAJUR. 6 – 30)

( 3 ) These Government servants who take this tax, should always protect us; otherwise they should not take the tax, and we also should not give them the tax. (YAJURVEDA 9 – 11 )

It is also pointed out, that, if the Administration become wicked or corrupt, the movement fro non – payment of tax, can be undertaken.

( 4 ) The Government servants should not take money from citizens, by immoral ways. But instead, swear that, we will always protect you, and punish the wicked culprits. (YAJUR. 6 – 23)

( 5 ) Those individuals, who collect the tax from those, who are liable for paying the tax, are fit to be the Ministers. The person who has good character, who can impress the citizens, and the citizens accept his advice and orders, should be appointed the Minister. (YAJUR. 9 – 24 ).

THE LIMIT OF TAX

In this Veda, there is no reference of the tax – limit. While, discussing about ‘FINANCE’, ATHARV – VEDA has discussed this topic. "Yadrajano ... Swadha"/ (ATHARVA. 3 – 29 – 1).

The members of the Tax Controlling Samiti, had decided to take as tax, 16 percent, or 16 th. part of the Income earned, either by toiling, and by heredity, or suddenly without difficulty, of both the kinds of Income, or some part of the Land. If the tax – payer pays this tax himself of his own accord, he saves himself from the blame of insult, and fine. (Some Scholars take the meaning of Podash’, as 16 percent, while some others take it as ‘16 th. part’).

(5 ) "Vasav ....Swaha" / (YAJAR. 23 – 8 )
The first class scholars, known as ‘VASU’ (Vasu), who have earned knowledge, remaining unmarried, upto the age of 24 years, should make physical progress, by canvassing ‘PRABHU BHAJAN’ (Prabhu Bhajan) and performance of duties, and should uplift the physical level of your kingdom. The Middle Class Scholars, known as ‘RUDRA’ (Rudra) who have attined knowledge, remaining unmarried, upto the age of 36, should uplift the Spiritual leval, by averting Passions, Anger, Desires, and thereby uplift the Mental Level of Meditation. The Distinguished Scholars, knwon as ‘ADITYA’, who have attained knowledge, remaining unmarried, upto the age of 48, should uplift and popularise the level of wisdom, through duel progress – both, physical, as well as, Mental.

(6) The quotqtion "Aashishayai ... Prashnavivak" (YAJUR. 30 – 10) points out that the "Question and Answer" theory, is helpful for making the pillar of Education, strong and broad in kingdom.

DISCUSSION ABOUT THE HEALTH

(1) "Uraj...Chtushpade