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 Title : The Glimpse of the Form of Vaidic Administration Author : Shri Manohar Vidhyalankar

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"Mata ...... Pruthivyaha |" (Atharva 12 – 1- 12)

The Vedas have described both the ‘Nation’, and "The United Nations". The nation is known as the ‘LAND’ or ‘Mother-Land’, ‘in Vedas. As per this definition, whatever land, is considered as the Mother – Land, by the certain group of citizens, is taken as their Nation. Hence, the Nations go on, increasing or decreasing. According to Vedas, the ideal condition would be that, when the whole World will become one Nation. The whole Mankind, will think itself, to be the children of this Mother-Land, and consider all, as our brothers. At that time, the idea of Nation, or Foreign Country, or United Nations, will become obsolete.

Up-to the present day, as per the Ideal of Vedas, the Man has progressed from the barbarian stage, to the State of Nation, but, still he has not progressed upto, the stage of ‘Federacy (Rashtrasangh), or the idea of the ‘Whole World as on Nation’ (Manav Rashtra); however, the reaction to reach that goal, is in progress.

Uttam Rashtra – Swarajya (The Best Nation – SELF GOVERNMENT) "So No ............... Dadhatuttame |" (Atharva – 12 – 1 – 8)

In Vedas, the word Matrubhumi is synonymous to ‘Nation’ or ‘self-government’. Whatever part of the land, is considered as the Mother-Land (Matrubhumi, by any human community, is their Nation, and that community has the right, of managing it. If they govern that land, it is their Freedom or self – government.

It is the duty of that community of people, who govern that Land, as their Mother Country to make every individual of the Nation, strong and glorious, so that, their Nation can be included, in the series of Supreme nations.

"Vayam Cha ...........Swarajye |" (RIGVEDA – 5 – 66 – 6)

In order to include the self – government, in the Class of eminent nations, every individual of the Nation, and every member of the intelligent, fore-sighted Ruling Group, must take constant effort, because, otherwise, no self – Government (Swarajya) can become good and enjoy peace and happiness (Suraj), and gain everlasting reputation.

‘HEAD OF THE GOVERNMENT – KIND

In the Vedas the Head of the Government, is generally called, the KIND or INDRA. In our Country, the Prime – Minister is the Head of the Government, and the President is only the so – called chief of the Nation. This represents our mental slavery. We have accepted this, following our British Rulers’ system, of the Kind and Prime – Minister. Conversely, this incurs double expenditure, and at times, the disputes regarding the Rights, spring up, and the whole legislation, comes to a stand – still.

IN VEDAS, THE KING IS ELECTED

According to Vedas, the King is not only elected, but, all the people of the five, directions of the Nation, and the five ‘VARNAS’ (Varna – Castes) will elect

him "Sarwastwa ............... Bhaveha |" (Atharva – 3 – 4 – 1) "Twam Visho ..... Devihi |" (Atharva – 3 – 4 – 2).

It is not hereditary, but the ancestral person is not even prohibited, from being elected once, or a number of times. The King can be dethroned also.

(Atharva – 6 – 81 – 1) "Vishatwa ......... Bhrashat |"

(Atharva – 6 – 81 – 2) "Ihaivedhi ........ Rashtramudharay |"

All the citizens, establish the Raj – Pramukh (King) on the Throne of INDRA, and wish that the magestic King, should sit on it, firmly, like the mountain. None should dethrone you. You should nourish and hold the Nation, with firm determination, so that all the subjects, would like to see you, seated on this status. But, it is not only sharp, but customary also, and limited as a warning only.

‘Vaidic Shasanke Prarup Ki Ek Zalak’

But, this will take place only when during your rule as a King, no corruption will spread in the Nation, and no portion of the Kingdom will be swallowed by the foreigners. If, either of these faults, is created in the Nation, your rule will come to an end, and you will be dethroned. But during the present Democracy, two – thirds (2/3) majority, is necessary, to dethrone the Ruler. This majority is decided by secret voting, and no whip (Pratod) of any party can interfere in it.

"Indraha ............. Variyanu / "Rig. 3 – 36 – 6

The Indra – Ruler has the right of Whip (Pratod), over all the decisions of his Counsellors or working Committee. But, he cannot use the Whip, for himself, or in the case of handing over any portion of the nation, to others.

"Puruhutam ........ Bravitan" Rig. 8 – 92 – 4

SYSTEM OF TAXES FOR ADMINISTRATION -

The wealth is necessary, for the administration of the nation. In order to collect this wealth, the taxes can be imposed, on the articles produced by the Nation (such as – Roads, Electricity, Water, Army, Health, Education etc.) Apart from this, the tax can be imposed on the personal wealth, gained on account of goods administration, and comforts. "Yadrarajano ........ Swadha |" Atharva – 3 – 29 – 1.

The members of the Working Committee, appointed by the Ruler, for administration, can collect maximum tax upto 16 per cent, (16%), on the personal income, or income earned from the management of ancestors, or by other means. But, while imposing this tax, it is necessary to exempt the wealth, necessary for living the common, virtuous life. No tax will be imposed on that money. This tax will be used for the protection of virtueous people, and the destruction of the wicked.

- Facilities for Tax – Payers, but no tax, on the poor -

According to Vedas (Loken Sammitam), the citizens that pay the Tax fixed by the Government, to the benevolent king, remain happy, as they get special facilities; but at the same time it is the duty of the Government, to see that in order to give facilities to the Rich Class, the poor class should not be taxed. It means, that instead of Indirect taxes, the Direct taxation on Income, should be given more importance. (Atharva.3 – 29 – 3)

- System of Punishment, in Vedas -

("Dandaha ........ Sarwaha") The citizens remain under control, due to the fear of punishment, fixed by the Government. The same principle is followed by Human Rights Commission. In Vedas, the mentality of threatening the small nations, does not exist.

- Examples of Harsh Punishments -

"Hatam ............ Bhangurawataha |" Rig. 1 – 104 – 1

The Death punishment (Hatam) should be given to the traitors of the Motherland or the Human Beings, and the Government Officers who are appointed for the protection of Citizens (Rakshasaha); but who take the bribe, and behave like Demons, for threatening; and the culprits engaged in the destruction and demolition (Bhangurawataha), to create disturbance in Society.

"Athasyendro ............. Bhinantwangyau |" (Atharva. 6 – 138 – 2)

In the case of the person, who snatches the lady and rapes her, it is the duty of the King, to break with stones, his both the testicles, and make him important, with the help of his appointed servants.

Yatudhyan –

According to Vedas, the following persons are known as ("Yatudhyan") – Those who are themselves culprits, but prove themselves as non-culprits, and prove the non – culprits, as the culprits; those who mix up the estables; those who deceive in the weight; those who show one sample, and give the different one; those who unnecessarily trouble the others; and those cheating the innocent persons. They are accordingly punished – (Ka) To touch with the flames of weapons created from Iron ( Aa. 8 – 3 – 4). (Ga) – To beat their children also, and to break their eyes (Aa. 1 – 83) – (Dhya) To behead the one who kills the Cow (Aa. 8 – 3 – 15). Such punishments are there.

"Triryatudhanaha .......... Etu |" (Atharva 8 – 3 – 11).

The YATUDHAN (Yatudhan) should be apprehended and punished, from three different angles – the real (Yatudhan) himself; the eye – witness giving the false witness, to save him; and his lawyer, who fights his case, even knowing that he is the culprit, should also be punished.

The Government has given freedom to culprits, by allowing the lawyers, to save the culprits, by any means. This is not desired by the Vedas.

- The practicality of Vaidic punishment -

Though, we have considered the harshness of Vaidic punishment, above, yet, it is not only harsh, but it is ‘practicable also, and limited as a warning only.

(1) "Ma ........... Bharishu |" (RIGV – 8 – 45 – 34)

The common small culprits, like those, who violate the traffic rules but do not produce any damage, can be freed, by giving the warning, three or four times. The repeating of the offence, thrice or more times, is definitely punishable and after a certain limit, even the capital punishment (death) can be imposed.

(2) "Tayoryatsatyam ........ Hantyasat ||" (RIGV. –1 – 104 – 12)

When the corruption reaches the climax, or the Administration goes to dogs (breaks down); even the sober individual follows the prohibited improper path. At that stage, the Demons compare the rober and good people with themselves, and mock at them. It is the duty of the Court of Justice, to protect such offendors, and warn them, if they have misbehaved a little, in order to stop the helplessness (Lachari) or big scandal.

It is stated in this mantra – If, both the parties have misbehaved, and are offenders, SOM, the Deity of Peace and Pleasure, protects the one, who is more near the truth and good behaviour, and destroys the false and crooked party. The principle "Nishiddha ....... Mapadi" is based on this Veda – Mantra only. But, this principle is only for the well-behaved, and not for ‘YATUDHAN’ (Demons), Who is well – behaving, and who is YATUDHAN, will not be decided, by the Rulers. It will be judged, by the Court – procedure, or the "Inner Voice" (Antaratma Ki Awaz). This voice does not proclaim, but punishes the self, and performs penance, like – Mahatma Gandhi.

(3) "Aratiyato ....... Myojasa ||" (Atharva – 10 – 6 – 1);

The common behaviour with all, is the main principle, of Vaidic Judiciary. No difference will be made in justice with anybody, depending on the strength, language, sex or designation. Even if, one is brother, or relative, if he becomes wicked – minded, and makes enemity with the Society and Nation, due to hatred, he will also be given death – punishment, without any solicitude.

Rashtra Ki Samruddhi Ke Liye Avadheya Kartawya (The Duties necessary for producing the Nation prosperous)

(1) Janasankhya Niyantran (POPULATION CONTROL)

In order to keep the Nation, in good condition, the population should remain proportional, to the productivity

of the Land. Hence, the vedas state that, the man in the Society, should not reach such a stage, that it will be difficult for him, to move in the Society, to live, and to procure food.

"Asambadh ..........Manavanam |" (ATHARVA-12-1-2) and again (RIGV-1-164-32), "Bahupraja ...............Vivesh" warns, that one should bear in mind, that the person having more children, and the Nation having more population, has to bear a lot of troubles, and attains bad plight.

(2) Anna Bahulya - Abudance of Food

The Nation should produce, as much food, as is necessary. It should not be dependent, on others."

"Annasya...........Yantam |" (Atharva –5-28-3)

In our Nation, there shuld be plenty of food and persons producing food- grains, and the beasts.

(3) "Shuddha Peya Jal - PURE DRINKING - WATER

"Shudha ..........Ksharantu |" (Atharva –12-1-3)

The pure water should always be available for every animal of the Nation, as per its needs.

(4) " Pradushan Rahit Vatavran - (POLLUTION – FREE ATMOSPHERE)

In Atharwa. Mandal 4- Sukta 24 to 29, the Sage Mrugar thesponsor of pure atmosphere, has prayed to Agni, Indra, Savita, Vayu, Sky, Pruthivi, Marut and Mitrarun (Which are Deities of Natural strenghts) that they should protect our Nation from any type of Violence, taking place, due to the want or excess of anything.

Ushakal Jagran, Arthath Ratri Klabonpar Niyantran –

Waking up at Dawn/Control over Night – Clubs –

"Jyotirmrutam – Tanoti |" (Atharva – 12 –1 – 15)

It is necessary to make an attempt, to establish the practice of waking up, at early dawn, in every person of the Nation, because, the Rising Sun, showers Nectar, (Health, Long Life, Peace of Mind, powerful wisdom), through the Rays.

Atharva – 9 – 8 –22 states, that the Sun destroys the diseases of Head and Heart.

"Sa No Devha ..........Rastenaha |" (Rigveda – 1 – 45 –3)

Hence, the Night Clubs increasing day-by-day, following the foreign countries, should be censured and prohibited.

(Kramashaha)

-----------x-x-x-----------

(Gatank Se Aage) Vaidik Shasan Ke Prarup Ki Ek Zalak

The Glimpse of the Form of Vaidic Administration

Rashtranirman Ke Liye Avashyak Kalyankari Dharnaye

(The Welfare Principles for building up the Nation).

(1) "Bhadramichhanta...........Duragre |" Atharva – 19 – 4 -11

The ministers wishing the welfare of the Nation, should lead the life, like the ascetic, become the revolutionist, devote themselves to the penance and sacrifice and create rules for the citizens.

(2) "Ghora.............Satyam |" (Atharva – 2 – 35 – 4)

The Citizens always bow down, to these great (generous and impartial) revolutionary rulers, creating

the Nation, because, they have the common out-look for all, and their mind, always insists the truth. They are harsh, in punishing their relatives, and high officials, and generous, during the crime detection of the poor, non-desiring subjects.

(3) " Janam...........Yathoukasam |" (ATHARVA – 12 – 1 – 45)

The administration of these sage-like rulers, is always righteous, with those having different languages and religious, just as the mother deals virtueously with all the persons, living in one house.

(4) "Visho...........Sarvataha |" "YAJUR. 20-8 (Rishi-Prajapati)

( Devata- Raja [King])

It is the duty of the King, ruling his subjects, to consider the citizens, as parts of his body, and care for their pleasure and sorrows, and take their service, according to their qualifications.

Praja Ki Rajase ApekshayeThe Expectations of the Subjects from the King.

The Citizens always expect from the King or Ruler, that peace should prevail in the nation, and there should be just administration. No one should create violence, and frighten the Society, so that, they can lead their life easily, and earn their livelihood. In this, the greatest obstacle, is the hateful behaviour of the neighbour countries. Hence, the citizens express their desire, in the following Mantra – (1) "Yo..........Swaha ||" (Atharva – 5 – 6 –10.)

‘ O’ King, bright, as AGNI, if anyone looks at the citizens of our Nation, with evil sight, or has the ill- temper in his mind, and thinks of making us week, by his talent and wicked motive, destroy all of them, with your powerful Missiles (Vajrastra). We citizens, are prepared to sacrifice all our pleasures, and even our lives, for this cause. Even the guided missiles are included in VAJRA (Vajra)

THE HINT- (Sanket) – Our ‘vajra weapons’ should not be less powerful, or less in number, than our neighbours. We should not be under pressure of any strong nation, for its production, and storage.

(2) "Jahi...........Mane |" – Atharva – 19 –29 –9

‘O’ kind the Head of the nation, and the Chief Commander of the Army, who can defeat the enemy, you kill the enemies, who hate and envy us, and make aggression untimely, through military, and are wicked minded.

The 19 Chants of these 2 Suktas, express the expectation in the form of prayer, describing different actions like burning, crushing, breaking, piercing, cutting, grinding, penetration etc; for destroying the enemy, from the root.

Thus, it is clear, that as per the principle of Vedas, no favour should be shown, either to the foreign or internal enemy. It is made more clear in the following quotations –

(3) "Adyo ..........Yudhyaha |" Rigv. – 10 –103 –1

"Tam.............Janat |" Atharv. – 2 – 3 – 6

"Shakhey......Tochishaha |" Yajur. – 19 – 45

"Andha.........Varam |" SAM (1811) 22 – 8 – 2

‘ The Prayer for the destruction of the enemy and the remedies for it, are described in 24 chants of the last ADHYAYA, of SAMVEDA, which is considered as the Veda of UPASANA. The 13 mantras, out of these, are available in the other 3 Vedas also. It is clear from this, that
Veda suggests the method of destroying the internal and external enemy, without showing any favour. Hence, one chant or part of it, from every Veda, is quoted above. It is stated in that:-

(Ka) Our Indra – King should be bold, undefeatable, and possess the stregnth of defeating the army of the enemy. And for this, he has to be harsh and wicked towards the enemy.

The enemy should get so much puzzled by the weapons, that, they should be unable to distinguish, between their own, and the others.

Our missiles, thrown on the enemy, should fall and hit, the enemy in such a manner, that none of them should survive.

Our enemy should not be able, to use their poisonous missiles, just as, the blind, and head-less serpents. The bold fighters of our army, should put to death, their officer and fighters, by picking them up.

Shiksha, Swasthya Aur Chikitsa – Education, Health and Medicine

These 3 points are of prime importance, in the duties of the King. In order to make the nation happy and prosporous, it is necessary to make available, all these 3, in much less expenditure. These 3 subjects are discussed in Atharv, at many spots. It will be more useful, if they are compiled together. But the Vedas have a definite view, regarding these three.

In order to procure all these 3, we have to be much near the Nature, and with the contact with the 5 elements (Panchamahabhut), and their proper use, all these three can be procured comfortably.

EDUCATION :- "Shiksha.............Yatha |" Atharva – 20 – 19 – 1

The GURU (tutor) should impart knowledge to the disciple, just as the father teaches his son, through his behaviour.

HEALTH :- "Agne............Vilapay |" Atharv – 1 – 1 – 2

Become health- giving (Hitabhuk), eat small quantity of food (Mitabhuk), and empower death, (Kalabhuk) so that the germs of diseases, will die of hunger.

MEDICINE :- "Aawat..............Bheshajaha |" Atharv – 4 – 13 – 3

The morning – walk and PRANAYAM, are the medicines for all the diseases.

Antim Kamana – The Last Expectation

"Aa Yad..............Swarajye |" Rigv. – 5 – 66 – 6 Krushi – Rathavya Aatreyaha Devta – Mitravaruna Chhanda – Anushtup

The God should graceus, as follows :-

‘O’ King, your both the departments, one dealing friendly with us (Health, Education, Medicine, defence etc.) and the other controlling situation, like VARUN (Police, Justice, Army, Defence etc.), should be broad – minded and generous. These two departments we common people the Scholars, should together attempt, to convert our free nation, to ideal SURAJYA (Surajya), as it is the enormous deed, and is possible through United efforts only.

If we succeed in combining our nation, with the High Power nations, it would be one step further, in creating the whole World’, as ‘One Nation’.


Tag Names : Athrvaved,Rugveda,Ved
Other articles of this author :
1 Administration of Nation in Yajurveda
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