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Man his forgetting his ancient vedic literature in the dazzling effects of today's science. Will it be wise to sever all connections with that culture in which one's forefathers have lived?

Man is running away and abstaining from his duties because of the deteriorating decency of behaviour and thoughts. Time has come for man to take a look at himself, his culture and apply the statements from them in his life. He should think about things which will cause upliftment of the society as a whole. Keeping this feeling in mind I would like to present the description of vedic literature and culture as it is described in the Vedas, Upanishadas, Puranas and Granthas.

The history of vedic literature and vedic Sanskrit is very ancient. The ancient literature of India is in Sanskrit. The spread of Sanskrit is connected to the spread of Aryasanskrit. Just as the ancient Sanskrit language lies intact in the Rigveda, in the same way the principle of ancient culture lies intact in the Rigveda. The languages Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Gujrati etc. have their origin in Sanskrit.

The poem books of Indian Sanskrit are as follows:

A) Samhita section: In this part there are subjects like prayer, praise, blessing and sacrifice etc. The collection of hymns of a single veda are called Samhita. Since they can be heard and they are systematic and grouped together they are called 'Sukta'. There are 4 Samhitas: 1. Rigveda Samhita, 2. Yajurveda Samhita, 3. Samaveda Samhita, 4. Atharvaveda Samhita.

B) Brahmana Section: These are collections of vedic knowledge about sacrifice, rites and rituals whose nomenclature is Brahmana. In these Brahmana books there is detailed definition of the hymns of the Samhita, there is also description of sacrifice.

C) Arayaka: It is called so because it is to be performed away from the human settlement or society. Brahmana literature is for people who indulge in sacrifice and aranyaka is for those who are in the 'Vanaprastha'.

D) Upanishadas: They are an important contribution in the vedic literature. Actually the number of Upanishads is 250 but scolars believe it to be 11, they are Isha, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Mundukta, Taiteriya, Aitreya, Chandogya, Vrihadaranyaka and Schwetashwateropanishada. They are in prose and also in poetry. The western scolar Mau Mueller has said that Upanishadas are the origin of knowledge.

The characteristics of vedic culture:
About this Sanskrit it is said that it is the foremost in universal meditation. Winternits has said in this context that, "If we anxious to know the fate of Sanskrit, if we have to understand the ancient Sanskrit of India then then we have to take refuge in India. The ancient literature of Indo-european class lies safe here. Kavindra-Ravindra has also said along same lines.

The philosophical thought of vedic culture is as follows:

The vedic rishis has agreed that the whole universe is in motion on basis of the natural strengths. The change or irregularity in the natural laws is "Ruta" and the moral values inspiring human life are called "The truth". The welfare of mankind is in understanding the laws of nature and behaving in accordance with them. Ruta and Truth, these emotions are the principles of philosophy. In Isha Upanishada it is said that the whole universe is occupied by Almighty God. The Karmavada Vedic Siddhanta says that life is work and one must spend his life working all the time. In Bhagvadgita, Lord Krishna while talking about the theory of Karmayoga has said that not working in life is a curse, sin. Life reduces by not working.

E) Sutra Sahitya : This is connected with Vedas. These are called manuals on rituals. It has many parts like: 1. Shroutasutra - we understand the rules of a big sacrifice or offering from this. 2. Guhasutra - In this we get to see the most ancient form of religious and spiritual rules.

Just like the Brahmana, Aranya and Upanishada are related to all four Vedas in the same way sutra grantha are also related to the 4 vedas in some way or the other. Confidence (Yajurveda 40/3) it is said that one who kills his soul is sinful. Life without confidence is worthless.

The settlement of rebirth - Vedic rishis believe that the supernatural emotion to be the basis virtuous conduct of human beings.
Universal friendship - The basic principle or guideline of vedic Sanskrit is universal friendship.
It is to be believed that I should look at others as friends and others should be friendly towards me.

The settlement of Similarity : The vedic teachings consist of the emotion of similarity. Of course, this Sanskrit stresses the overall progress of human beings. He has given equal importance to religion, wealth, desire and salvation, where religion is the basis of all, without wealth one cannot survive and desire is the cause of the creation of universe. Salvation is the basic purpose of Indian Sanskrit.

The class system was formed for the progress of mankind where there are four classes:

Brahamana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra and there are four Ashrams - Brahmacharya, Gruhastha, Vanaprastha and Moksha.

There are also 16 rites: Garbhadana, Punasavana, Simantonayana, Jatakarma, Namakarana, NIihakamana, Annaprashana, Chudakarana, Karnavedha, Vidyarambha, Upanayana, Vedarambha, Keshanta, Samavaratana, Vivaha and Anteshtyi.

Three Obligations: In vedic literature for the welfare of individual and society three obligations are prescribed: Obligation towards Father, towards Rishis and towards Gods. Among these threee the obligation towards father is for welfare of the society, obligation towards Rishis is for self study and Brahamacharya, obligation towards Gods is to avoid pollution and perform sacrifice and other rites.

Upanishadas have said that a Brahmanan by birth becomes obligated towards all these three obligations.

Ashavada : One would live a hundred years such hymns are found in Vedas. Suicide is the forgetting of the inner drive for living.

Women in vedic period : In vedic times the hymns were not only known by Rishis but also their wives. There are many references found in Rigveda that they were honoured. The daughter who remained unmarried in her fathers family was looked after by the fathers family (Rigveda 2/17/7). In many hymns the Sati (A woman who willingly burns herself on her busband's pyre) has been praised (Rigveda 10/109). For men one marriage was considered ideal. In those times there was the custom of 'Swayamvara' where the woman chose the man of her choice for marriage (Rigveda 10/27/2). The unfaithful woman was cursed and the faithful woman was praised. In totally the society was dominated by men. The custom of only one wife was prevalent but references are found of many wives in the kingly families.

The society gave respect to women.

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 Title : Indian Vedic Literature Sanskrit A Synthesis Author : Bharat Singh

Man his forgetting his ancient vedic literature in the dazzling effects of today's science. Will it be wise to sever all connections with that culture in which one's forefathers have lived?

Man is running away and abstaining from his duties because of the deteriorating decency of behaviour and thoughts. Time has come for man to take a look at himself, his culture and apply the statements from them in his life. He should think about things which will cause upliftment of the society as a whole. Keeping this feeling in mind I would like to present the description of vedic literature and culture as it is described in the Vedas, Upanishadas, Puranas and Granthas.

The history of vedic literature and vedic Sanskrit is very ancient. The ancient literature of India is in Sanskrit. The spread of Sanskrit is connected to the spread of Aryasanskrit. Just as the ancient Sanskrit language lies intact in the Rigveda, in the same way the principle of ancient culture lies intact in the Rigveda. The languages Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Gujrati etc. have their origin in Sanskrit.

The poem books of Indian Sanskrit are as follows:

A) Samhita section: In this part there are subjects like prayer, praise, blessing and sacrifice etc. The collection of hymns of a single veda are called Samhita. Since they can be heard and they are systematic and grouped together they are called 'Sukta'. There are 4 Samhitas: 1. Rigveda Samhita, 2. Yajurveda Samhita, 3. Samaveda Samhita, 4. Atharvaveda Samhita.

B) Brahmana Section: These are collections of vedic knowledge about sacrifice, rites and rituals whose nomenclature is Brahmana. In these Brahmana books there is detailed definition of the hymns of the Samhita, there is also description of sacrifice.

C) Arayaka: It is called so because it is to be performed away from the human settlement or society. Brahmana literature is for people who indulge in sacrifice and aranyaka is for those who are in the 'Vanaprastha'.

D) Upanishadas: They are an important contribution in the vedic literature. Actually the number of Upanishads is 250 but scolars believe it to be 11, they are Isha, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Mundukta, Taiteriya, Aitreya, Chandogya, Vrihadaranyaka and Schwetashwateropanishada. They are in prose and also in poetry. The western scolar Mau Mueller has said that Upanishadas are the origin of knowledge.

The characteristics of vedic culture:
About this Sanskrit it is said that it is the foremost in universal meditation. Winternits has said in this context that, "If we anxious to know the fate of Sanskrit, if we have to understand the ancient Sanskrit of India then then we have to take refuge in India. The ancient literature of Indo-european class lies safe here. Kavindra-Ravindra has also said along same lines.

The philosophical thought of vedic culture is as follows:

The vedic rishis has agreed that the whole universe is in motion on basis of the natural strengths. The change or irregularity in the natural laws is "Ruta" and the moral values inspiring human life are called "The truth". The welfare of mankind is in understanding the laws of nature and behaving in accordance with them. Ruta and Truth, these emotions are the principles of philosophy. In Isha Upanishada it is said that the whole universe is occupied by Almighty God. The Karmavada Vedic Siddhanta says that life is work and one must spend his life working all the time. In Bhagvadgita, Lord Krishna while talking about the theory of Karmayoga has said that not working in life is a curse, sin. Life reduces by not working.

E) Sutra Sahitya : This is connected with Vedas. These are called manuals on rituals. It has many parts like: 1. Shroutasutra - we understand the rules of a big sacrifice or offering from this. 2. Guhasutra - In this we get to see the most ancient form of religious and spiritual rules.

Just like the Brahmana, Aranya and Upanishada are related to all four Vedas in the same way sutra grantha are also related to the 4 vedas in some way or the other. Confidence (Yajurveda 40/3) it is said that one who kills his soul is sinful. Life without confidence is worthless.

The settlement of rebirth - Vedic rishis believe that the supernatural emotion to be the basis virtuous conduct of human beings.
Universal friendship - The basic principle or guideline of vedic Sanskrit is universal friendship.
It is to be believed that I should look at others as friends and others should be friendly towards me.

The settlement of Similarity : The vedic teachings consist of the emotion of similarity. Of course, this Sanskrit stresses the overall progress of human beings. He has given equal importance to religion, wealth, desire and salvation, where religion is the basis of all, without wealth one cannot survive and desire is the cause of the creation of universe. Salvation is the basic purpose of Indian Sanskrit.

The class system was formed for the progress of mankind where there are four classes:

Brahamana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra and there are four Ashrams - Brahmacharya, Gruhastha, Vanaprastha and Moksha.

There are also 16 rites: Garbhadana, Punasavana, Simantonayana, Jatakarma, Namakarana, NIihakamana, Annaprashana, Chudakarana, Karnavedha, Vidyarambha, Upanayana, Vedarambha, Keshanta, Samavaratana, Vivaha and Anteshtyi.

Three Obligations: In vedic literature for the welfare of individual and society three obligations are prescribed: Obligation towards Father, towards Rishis and towards Gods. Among these threee the obligation towards father is for welfare of the society, obligation towards Rishis is for self study and Brahamacharya, obligation towards Gods is to avoid pollution and perform sacrifice and other rites.

Upanishadas have said that a Brahmanan by birth becomes obligated towards all these three obligations.

Ashavada : One would live a hundred years such hymns are found in Vedas. Suicide is the forgetting of the inner drive for living.

Women in vedic period : In vedic times the hymns were not only known by Rishis but also their wives. There are many references found in Rigveda that they were honoured. The daughter who remained unmarried in her fathers family was looked after by the fathers family (Rigveda 2/17/7). In many hymns the Sati (A woman who willingly burns herself on her busband's pyre) has been praised (Rigveda 10/109). For men one marriage was considered ideal. In those times there was the custom of 'Swayamvara' where the woman chose the man of her choice for marriage (Rigveda 10/27/2). The unfaithful woman was cursed and the faithful woman was praised. In totally the society was dominated by men. The custom of only one wife was prevalent but references are found of many wives in the kingly families.

The society gave respect to women.

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