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 Title : The Scientific Analysis of Vedas Samaveda Author : Mr Harigopal Sharma

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The analysis of Samaveda: The Samagana consists of five parts.’Hinkar, Prastava, Udgitha, Pratihar and Nidhan’ Out of these the first three mentioned above signify todays ‘Sthayee, Antara and Abhoga’. We get a hint if the ‘taans’ from the ‘Nidhan’. Stengway has mentioned in the ‘Hindustan of Music’ that the ‘Udatta Aroha’ and the ‘Anudatta Avaroha’ hint to the ‘Swarita Sthayee’.

Samagana was usually sung while performing ‘Abhishava’ or during the ‘pooja’ performed for ancestors living in ‘Chandralok’. It is clearly mentioned in the Shanti Parva of Mahabharata that Samagana was performed at the time of creation ceremony of Bhishma. The three instruments used during the Samagana were Dumdubhi, Venu and veena.

The subpart of Samaveda is the Gandharva Veda, from which thousand Ragas and Raginis were born. The origin of instruments and dance is also Samaveda.

There is a similarity between the Samagana note and the normal note. The sequence of the Samagana notes is : Madhyam, Gandhar, Rishabh, Shadja, Dhaiwat, Nishad and Pancham. These notes are denoted in Samagana as: Krushta Prathama, Dwitiya, Trutiya, Chaturtha, Mandra and Atiswarya. Since the first note of Samagana is Krushta, so the Sama notes are called as ‘Krushtadi’.

In Taiteriya Pratishakhya the other name of Sama, that is Yama is also mentioned. The other pattern of notes for Samagana is: Shadja (Sa), Rishabh (Re), Gandhar (Ga), Madhyam (Ma), Pancham (Pa), Dhaivat (Dha) and Nishad (Ni). Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni.

The signs 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 respectively represent Krushta, Prathama, Dwitiya, Trutiya, Chaturtha, Mandra and Atiswarya or Ma, Ga, Re, Sa, Dha, Ni, Pa. The letter ‘Na’ denotes a Shruti.

In Samagana mostly upto 5 numbers are used. The use of number six and seven can be seen in ‘Atyanta Sama Gana’. The seven notes are included in Udattadi trayasvara also. Udatta note consists of Nishad and Gandhar, Anudatta note consists of Rishabh and Dhaivat and Swarit note consists of Shadja, Pancham and Madhyam note. In Samagana the seven notes are sung in a descending order, by signing which one gets mental peace. But in the modern signing pattern it ascends from slow speed to a higher one, which in fact excites the singer instead of giving him tranquili ty. The person performing Samagana also benefits by the same. The counting of notes in Samagana is very scientific and systematic. The science of music has originated from the Samaveda. Samaveda is of two types. The Prakruti Samagana is concerned with Purvarchik of the Samaveda. Gramageyagana, Aranyageya are included in the same. In Vikrutigana the main things that are included are Uhagana and Uhyagana. The method of signing this is different and in accordance with Uttararchika. The names of Uttararchika and its Saptaparva are Dasharatra, Samvatsar, Ekaha, Aheen Satra, prayashchita and Kshudra. The number of Sama in Prakruti gana is 1494 and that of Vikruti Gana is 1145. In this way the number of Samgana in Samveda is 2636.

The Sama signing in Sama literature varies because different sages have influenced different hymns. There are some hymns where both types of Samagana that is Prakruti and Vikruti can be found. The highest Sama number on a hymn is 61 and thereafter the number are 59 and 49. There are many hymns having the number 25. The hymns concerned with Uttararchika are sung according to the Stomas. There are 9 kinds of Stomas. Viz. Trivrutta, Panchadasha, Saptadasha, Ekavimsha, Trinava, Trayashtrinsha, Chaturvinsha, Chatushchatvarinsha and Ashtachatvarinsha. Out of these one Sama is sung with three Ruchas. These Truchas oscillate in three motions. In each case they are bound by certain rules. In this way in the third option the form of Stoma is completed. This kind of Janma Ganais called as Vishtuti Visheshgana. There are 28 types of such Vishtutis.

It is mentioned in the Naradiya Shiksha and Sama Vidhana that the God created this world and Sama Gana agev life to it. This whole process is scientific. The different notes of Samagana make different deities, living and non-living things happy. The Gods got life from the Krushta notes of Sama. Human beings get happiness from the first note, the Gandharvas are happy due tot eh second note and the third note makes demons, animals happy and the note Ati Swarya makes the medicinal plants and other life happy.

Tag Names : Samveda,Ved
Other articles of this author :
1 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES IN VEDAS The Massive Scientific Principles
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