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 Title : Yayavari Transport in Vedic period Author : Mr Mangilal Mishra

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In Pathvisukta of Atharvaved (12-1-47) there is a mantra.

Dr.Vasudeosharan Agrawal has defined and explained it as follows: -

1.There are many paths, ways in this Earth.

2.These pathways are important factors for travelling for people.

3.The tracks for chariots are built on these roads. (In Olden times the chariot was the fastest travelling vehicle.)

4.The roads were also useful for the carts loaded with goods.

5.Everybody whether good or bad has equal rights to travel on this road.

6.But there shouldn’t be danger from the wild beasts of dacoits on this road.

7.If these paths are safe and fortune giving to the travellers, then these paths are the symbol of richness dwelling on the earth.

Through Vedic literature we are informed that the Aryans travelled in groups on wide roads, on which chariots could run (Atharvaved 14,1,63,14, 6-9). They described this path. They say the paths stood at a feet height, then the surroundings and the trees bordered the road.

Aitareya Brahmanas (7,14) in its Charaiwato Mantra emphasises on speedy travelling, whereas Atharvaved (12,1,40) reminds us of Aryans.

The contemporary historians also think along these lines and state that the origin of Aryans is not ‘Bharatvarsha’, but they are foreigners. One of the historian is Mr. Fushe. He states that Aryans came to India from Balakh through Hindukush. The Afghanis move along with their women and children and luggage. The Aryans travelled in a similar manner.

There is a story in ‘Shantapath Brahamana’. Videgh Madhav (a rural) started from the banks of Saraswati to spread the Vedic religion. He was accompanied by his family priest Gautama, and Atin the symbol of Vedic religion. They travelled disturbing the rivers, burning down the forests and reached the banks of the river Gandak. According to Shatpath (1,4,1,10-17) at that time, the Brahmanas were already residing on the other bank of the river. Already it was the centre of Vedehi Vedic Culture (Vedehi entered soul of Brahma) when Videha Madhav asked Agni about its original place, he told it was from East. Sadanera was the dividing line in Kousal and Vidahi.

There is no doubt, that in Indian culture the guest is respected as God. But there is a difference in motivation of a merchant and a traveller. The traveller is worshipped but not the merchant.

According to Vedic Index, Pam Pratipan and Atharvaved (3,15,14) have resemblance. They suggest to evaluate and perform bravery.

Pani was a rich merchant of those times. But because of his misery he was disliked by Brahmins. Hence he is condemned in many mantras of Rigveda. The gods were requested to wage war against Panis.

In Vedic times, the merchants used to travel over a longer distance. Their aim was to earn money through various means, to invest money for profits, to send goods to countries far away.

The trade was being continued by the Indian merchants and merchant’s who came by sea.

Boob has a place in Panis literature. He is called as a mesmerizer and hoarder.

Which people are referred to as Panis is impossible to tell.

According to St. Petersberg’s dictionary Pani originated from the root ‘Pan’ i.e. usage. So Pani is the person who did not give anything without his profits.

Ludwig says that these Panins were gypsies who moved in Caravans like the Arabs and people fro Northern Africa.

May be, these panis were not Aryans and they did not believe in Vedic Religion. So Aryans were unhappy with them.

In Vedic literature we get references of the trade through sea near Sindhu river. There are references about the ships.

Vedic Aryans did trade through the sea (Rigveda – 1.47,6,7,7). They used to trade commodities like pearls. This trade also helped to acquire knowledge.

Shatpathi Brahmanas (1,6/3,11) calls Arabic ocean as ‘Prachyor’ and the Bay of Bengal a udichya. Afterwards they are referred as Ratnakar and Manodidh respectively.

In Rigveda there are references of Sea-voyages. Bhujayu’s ship was wrecked in storm at sea. Many investigators were sent to search for it. Erections of ‘direction showing crows’ was also done.

In this way we had a glimpse at the transportation by road and water. Due to these sea-voyages there were many adulterations in the streams of society, so sea-voyages were criticized. Manu also opposed sea voyages. But the sea voyages regained its importance during ‘Buddha’s reign’.

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Tag Names : Athrvaved,Rugveda,Ved,shthpathbramhan
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