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 Title : The language and script of Vedas Author : Shri Radhakrishna Shastri

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The Visible is produced from Invisible. The word is derived from the Root, "Nada Avyakte Shabde". It means ‘SOUND’. The ‘NAD’ (Nad) is Shivatmak. It is created by the agitation of Shiv-shakti. From NAD, the ‘BINDU’ takes birth, and from ‘BINDU’ the ‘AKSHAR’, and from AKSHAR, the ‘MATRUKAS’ take birth.

GEETA states "Yadaksharam ........ Vadanti". I am talking about the same ‘AKSHAR’ (Permanent SOUL), which is known by the Scholars of VEDA. The one who is pointing out this, is PURUSHOTTAM, who is beyond all of them, and is ‘Uttam Purush Parmatma’, who according to VEDA, is "Sahastra Shirsha Purushaha".

‘OM’ is the basis of VEDA. "Omityekaksharam Bramha". ‘OM’ is formed by 3 letters - ‘A’ ‘U’ ‘M’ ( A, U, M). Everything is hidden in this word.

The Basical Language.

"Sada......Gatam" is the quotation, from ‘PUSHPARAGAM TANTRA’. The abode of Sadashiv, is in the form of TONE (Nad). The complete Literature is existing, in five mouths – Sadyojat, Purush, Ishan. "Dnyanamatttet ....... Shivakshmottham" – All knowledge is produced from SHIV. The ‘NAD’ and ‘BINDU’ are in the form of ‘Cause’, as well as, ‘Result’. There are nine (9) types of ‘SUKSHMA NAD’ (Sukshma Nad). – (1) CHINI (Chini) (2) CHINI CHINI (3) Ghanta Nad (4) Shankha Nad (5) Tantri Nad (6) TAL Nad (7) VENU Nad (8) BHERI NAD (9) Mrudanga Nad. These tone (NAD) can be experienced by Ascetics. Aa, Ka, Cha etc. ‘STHUL VAIKHARI’ takes birth from them. These 9 NAD, give birth to ‘SUKSHMA’ ‘Aa, Ka, Cha, Ta, Ta, Pa, Ya, Sha, La’, STHUL MADHYAM’. From this, ‘STHUL’ ‘Aa, Ka, Cha etc.’, ‘STHUL VAIKHARI’ takes the birth. Acharya PUNYANAD holds the opinion that "Panchadashakshari Shri Vidhya" is VAIKHARI, and it has 50 VARNAS (Varna), which means that the ‘ROOTS’ and ‘VOWELS’ are created from the ‘PANCH DASHAKSHARI’ Mantra. ‘KASHIKA TEEKA’ states that Aa, Ii, Uu, Ru, Lru, these 5 Varnas, are original, and 49 letters are originated from these.

‘SHRUTI’ has one ‘Praman’ – "Asad ........ Sadjayat". This ‘Asat Bramha’ was ‘Asat’ or ‘Nirgun’, beore the World, and was in the ‘Akshar’ form. Afterwards, it became ‘Sagun Akshar’. According to the verse in GEETA – "Aksharanamkarosmi", the letter ‘Aa’ is the best of all. This letter ‘Aa’ exists in the form of ‘PARA’ (Para), in the navel of GOD; as ‘PASHYANTI’ in the Heart; as ‘MADHYAMA’, in the ‘Vishuddha Chakra of Throat’; and as ‘Vaikhari’ in the mouth. This is the original form.

In complete VEDANT, there is only one God ‘Aaiun’ is the Sutra, whose meaning is as follows – ‘Aa’ – GOD; ‘Ii’ – taking support of ‘Chitkala’; ‘Un’ – Vyapak Sagun.

‘Ru’ is GOD, and ‘Lru’ is MAYA. There is no difference, in these two, as per Grammar. ‘Lru’ gave birth to the MIND, and from that, the Universe, came into existence. In fact, whatever Alphabets are available, in 14 Sutras of PANINI, all of them, are the basis of all languages, whether it is Hindi or English. There is no difference of opinion regarding this. PANINI had achieved these 14 Sutras, from SHANKAR, and even, they were not created by SHANKAR. He had manifested them through ‘Ekkanad’. SHABDA BRAMHA is eternal. ‘Aa’, the beginning of Sutras, is the form of SHIV, and the last letter ‘Ha’ is the ‘Kala Vimarsh Shakti’. ‘Aha’ is the combination of 2 letters (Pratyahar). Any person, when delighted, pronounces this Pratyahar – "Aha".
The Language of Vedas.

Vedas are created, by the inhalation and exhalation of AIR, by SADASHIV. In ‘PANINI SHIKSHA’, there is the quotation, "Yathoktam – Lokavedayoho" /. ‘LOK’ and ‘VED’, both are the systems of Pronunciation. In Grammar, the meaning of the word ‘Go’, means ‘Sasnaman’ (the skin, hanging in the Throat), and, in the Science of Education, ‘Go’ is pronounced, from the root of the Tongue. It is quoted in ‘Maha Bhashya’, - "Ya Eeva ...... Teshamaryaha". Only those words which are secular, are Vaidic, and they are their meanings. In Education, regarding the Series of Languages, SHANKAR has given ‘Shankari Vidya’, to Maharshi PANINI. The system of pronunciation of the Alphabets, is broadly discussed, in ‘PANINI SHIKSHA’, and other studies. According to the opinion of ‘Shambh’, the number of Alphabets, is 63 or 64. In this, 21 are ‘SWAR’ ; 25 are ‘SPARSH’, ‘ Ya, Sha, Ra, Va’ are 8 in number, and 4 ‘YAM’, "Prakrute ...... Swayambhuwa".

On the basis of this sentence, all the alphabets of ‘Prakrut’, ‘SANSKRIT’ – ‘Apabhransh’ languages, are the creation of SHIV himself.

From these proofs of the Science of Education, since the Ancient Period, the Language is divided into 4 parts - (1) Vaidic Sanskrit (2) Laukik Sanskrit (3) PRAKRUT (4) Pali Apabhransh. As the time passed, some transformations resulted in these Languages.

The word ‘Bhasha’ is derived from the Prakrut ‘Bhash’. Its meaning is "Pronunciation". The Science of Pronunciation, is the NOSE of Veda. Whether, it is Correct or Incorrect, is decided by the Grammarian, who is held as the MOUTH of Veda. The VIRTUE is attained by the Correct Pronunciation, and SIN, by using Incorrect Pronunciation. This is the order of Maharshi PATANJALI. The places of Alphabets (Varna) are fixed, but, articulation of SOUND or TONE, can be made, in pronouncing them. In pronouncing some Alphabets, short breath is taken, for example, Cha, Ta, while, in some Alphabets, long breath is necessary. In olden days, YASKACHARYA, had selected Vaidic words, in his ‘NIRUKTA’ (Ear of Veda), regarding which, DURGACHARYA has written ‘BHASHYA’. The system of using Vaidic words lasted till the period of YASK.

Upto, 500 B.C., since the period of PANINI, the use of "Laukik Sanskrit" (Laukik Sanskrit) had increased. It is guessed from Panini Sutras, that, both the Vaidic and Laukik Sanskrit, had the importance upto that time. The quotation "Bhashayam ......... Chhandasi", points out, that, at that time, the language meant, ‘Laukik Sanskrit’. The Sutra of PANINI, "Sarvatra ..... Padanto" means that in ‘LOK’ and ‘Veda’ the word ‘Edant Go’ creates ‘Prakruti Bhav’. This also proves, that, both ‘Laukik’ and ‘VAIDIC’ Sanskrit, were in use at that time. Apart from ‘Ashtadhyai Laukik Vyakaran’, there is also ‘Vaidic Evam Swar Prakriya’. In the Sutras of the above – quoted books of Grammar, the names of Scholars of Grammar, are included for example, "Avad....... Shakalyashya". The sage Sphotayan was the teacher of PANINI, and so "Sphotayan ..........Pujarth" is written. There are 8 Grammars, but they are related with Sages. In Sanskrit volumes, some words are found, which are opposite, to the Rules of PANINI’s Grammar. The Commentators, have kept silence, only by saying ‘Arsha Yam’. In BHAGWAT, there is one Verse "Putreti ........Netuhu", But, this is Arsh Prayog of SHRIDHAR, as ‘Putreti’ is not according to PANINI Grammar. There are many such examples. The old Grammars, are related to Sages, and they were vogue at that time. "Sambuddho.........Banarshehe". In this PANINI Sutra, the word ‘Anarsh’ is used, which means, ‘different from Arsh’.

The word ‘Arsh’ means "Related to Sage". This word proves, that Vaidic Language, was the Language of Sages. They were not the Exhibitors, or Composers of Chants. YAJUR has stated "Chhanda Si Jadnire", and the word ‘Jadnire’ is formed, from the Root, ‘Jati Pradurbhav’. It is clear from the word ‘Pradurbhav’, that the Vedas are not originated, but, they are manifested or revealed. The word ‘Chhandas’ is generally used for ‘VEDA’. "Chhandasi-Vachanam" (PANINI SUTRA). According to ‘Mimansa Paribhasha’ Veda is divided into 2 parts – (1) MANTRA, and (2) BRAMHAN. The part MANTRA, is in the form of Verses, while BRAMHAN is Prose. The BRAMHAN were written a little later. The meaning of the word ‘Chhandas’ is ‘Independent’. Veda is independent, and hence, in the form of Verses. The original Poetical Work of ‘Laukik Sanskrit’, is "VALMIKI RAMAYAN". That time also, ‘Vaidic Language’ was dominant. The first Stanza, which is the speech of BRAMHA (Bramha), was manifested from the mouth of Maharshi, - "Manishad ....... Hitam" / According to "Champu Ramayan Tika", the ANUSHTUP metre, consisting of 32 letters, is VAIDIC.
‘OM’ is the first VARNA, in Veda. There are 3 ‘MATRA’ (PITCH) in this – Short, Long and Concealed. "Ekam .....Dnyeyaha". The method of pronouncing them, can be learnt from the birds. The Blue Jay, (Chash), utters one Matra, the Crow utters 2, and the Cock utters 3 MATRA. Similarly, the TUNES are High, Low and Middle. The Symbol of High Tune is ( ), and that of Low, is (-). Generally, the words of Veda, are reverse of ‘Laukik Sanskrit’ – Singular to Plural, Feminine to Masculine. The ‘Ramasaha’ in Veda, becomes ‘Ramaha’ ‘; in LOK. The word ‘Karnehe’ in LOK, becomes ‘Bhadram Karnebhihi’, in Veda. The word ‘Som’ is much popular in Veda. In AVESTA, it is known as ‘Hahom’. Similar to RIGVEDA, in AVESTA language, we find TRISHTUP

Metre, of 11 letters, and 4 Verses, ; GAYATRI Metre, with 8 letters, and 3 Verses. ; and ANUSHTUP Metre, having 4 Verses. In ‘LENIN’ language, the word ‘Devus’, is used for ‘Devata’. The Vaidic word ‘Ghosmita’, is called ‘Juspetar’ in GREEK Language, and ‘Jupiter’ in LENIN Language. Vaidic name ‘Usha’ becomes ‘Yeos’, in LENIN and GREEK. In AVESTA, the meaning of ‘Indra’ is ‘Rakshas’. The word ‘Vrutraha’ in Veda, is written ‘Vareghra’, in Avesta. The word ‘Som’ becomes ‘Amrosiya’, in GREEK, and has similarity to ‘Amrut’. In foreign language, ‘Asur’ is known as ‘Ahur’. In Vaidic Chants, there is the description of "Beauty of Nature", as well as "Similarity" and "Figures of Speech". In the PROSE Part, ‘UPANISHAD’ etc., there are Episodes, related to ‘Spiritual Deeds’.


The Language is written in Script. The original of Scripts, is ‘BRAMHI’ Script. In BRAMHI Script, the form of ‘Aa’ is ‘Yu’. ‘Akar’ is Vasudev. ‘Aadi’ is Varna. The form of Labials (pertaining to Lips) is similar. Writing like ( ) represents the MOUTH. First of all, BRAMHA created the Mouth ; then the BODY, and then the Universe. Afterwards, ‘Bhutlipi’ was created. The scripts of ‘Vaidic Sanskrit’ and ‘Laukik Sanskrit’, are almost similar. Grammatically, there is difference in the sign of ‘SWAR’ etc. There is difference in pronunciation also. In RIGVEDA, ‘Sha’ is pronounced from THROAT, and similarly, in KRISHNA YAJURVEDA also. In ‘SHUKLA YAJURVEDA’, ‘Sa’ is pronounced as ‘Kha’. In RIGVEDA, the last part of Mantra, is pronounced with less strength, while in YJUR, it is pronounced with more strength. In RIGV., ‘Hastaswar’ is changed as ‘high’ and ‘Low’ and in YAJUR, it is ‘Sharp Tone’ and ‘Blunt Tone’. In SAM VEDA, the movement of 7 fingers, is learnt from GURU. (In Music, there are 7 Tunes). In RIGVEDA, there are 3 signs, of tremolo or trill (Kampswar). In YAJUR, in "Ganpati Hawamahe" the Nasal sign (Anuswar) is ‘GANPATI’. The Nasal sign is denoted in 3 ways – (1) (2) (3) . The Symbol of COLON, is � and that of Semi-colon, is ( . ). The movement of ‘Hastaswar’, and pronunciation from the Throat, should be, of the same level, as, in playing HARMONIUM. If, this is followed, the Mantra becomes fruitful quickly. ‘Vyubja’ and ‘Jatyaswar’ are also there. Their signs are ‘w’, ‘t’. The Vadic Tunes are proper for singing, as Greek Language. In GREEK, the ‘Akyutadi’ tunes, become prevalent after CHRIST. In Sanskrit Language, ‘Udatta Adi Swar’ also prevailed in the Seventh Century after Christ, or a little earlier. The word ‘Hepra’ in GREEK, becomes ‘Sapte’ in Veda. There is similarity in both the Languages, regarding description of SWAR, in the original ARYAN Language.As the language of Vedas, is difficult to grasp, SAYANACHARYA, who was born in Southern Vallari (Vijaynagar), wrote ‘BHASHYA’ on Vedas, in the 14th Century, after CHRIST.At present, the person who has discussed, all the 4 Vedas, is "Sadguru Mahamandaleshwar Swami Shri Gangeshwaranand Maharaj" His ‘GURU’, GANGESHWAR, served as the Principal of ‘Ved Darshan Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya’ in VRUNDAVAN. I (original writer) obtained his favour, and hence, I conclude this article, dedicating it, to him only.

Tag Names : Ved
Other articles of this author :
1 The practic of Dowry or Dahej its form and nature in Vedic Times
2 Emergence of Artistic flora in vedas
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