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 Title : Women in Indian Culture Author : Manohar Vidyalankar

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According to the Vedas a women is respected more than a man The founder of Hindu religion, Menu has said, that the divine inspiration is created where a women is respected, and nurtured The sinful or devilish feelings feelings will be destroyed.

With reference to this Lord Rama has also said that a mother and their motherland are above the heavens in their respect

Comparatively, an Indian woman is not financially equal or rival to man as in western countries, but is complimentary to the man. According to Indian belief, in each man dwells a woman, an in each woman dwells a man. Hence the woman is called the better half. One of the greatest God, 'Mahadeo' takes the form of Ardhanarishwar [half man and half woman]. Man and woman are incomplete without each other Man is necessary for the women to show her precious, unique quality of motherhood.

The foundation of Indian culture is mutual co-operation. Mutual understanding leads to peace in the society. But in modern days, the relationship of man and a woman is based on competition, egoism which brushes off the peace form the world.

Niruktakar hasn't described a woman as an individual self, because Vedas believe in the complimentary relationship between man and woman. The two as separate individuals are incomplete.

According to Vedic culture man and woman hold the equal position in context of duties, rights and respect. Both are allowed to choose their own field and show their creativity.

The men who realised this learnt the meaning of Veda mantras and those who practised them in their daily life and who lead a pious life were known as Rishis'. The woman who followed the same path are said to be 'Rishikas'

Totally there are 525 Rishis of Veda mantra, out of which 21 are Rishikas. Though Rishikas are less in number, the knowledge depicted through them is valuable.

The Rishikas of Veda Mantra.

Rishikas are learned respectful ladies with a good character. Realising the meaning of Veda mantras, they have accepted it as a way of life. Their style is an example of the preachings of Vedas.

The knowledge and the preachings of the Rishikas is very important. If we inculcate the 'Suktas' and mantras' deciphered by them, the life of individual and society will progress in a matured way.

Conventionally these Rishiks can be grouped in 4 categories-

1. Sexual science Rishikas

2. Brahmavadini Philosophical preachings

3. Universal truth preachers

4. Spokesman of samwad sukta

[1] Kaam Vidnyan Rishikas

Romasha alias Shamastri invites her emotional mate for sexual relations, stating that don't imagine her as too young, in fact she is a fully grown up lass.

Lop mudra- This rishikas face is clouded because of dissatisfaction of sexual arrousal. Agastya, her husband thinks sex is a sin because of his prior education background. Lop mudra tells him that this procedure has begun with the origin of nature. Why do you waste your and my life and youth? With the growing age the beauty of our bodies and attraction will decrease. So adapt this process of copulation let us be happy and help the nature God in reproducing. The Goddess of this is - 'Rati'

Shasawati Angarasi - She says that Rati is the immortal energy dwelling in the human being 'Aasang is the deity of this mantra. It states states that for an eager woman, there is more erotic and correct suggestion in this mantra. is a description of the eteranal truth.

Apala Rishika of 8-11

In the opening verses of this Sukta, Sayan has narrated a story. After the marriage Apala lost her hair, had skin disease and was incapable of giving birth. So her husband discarded her. Actually, this story is stated to arouse the interest of the audience. There are suggestions given in each sukta for the girls. It suggests that when the girl is ready for marriage, she should please her husband thinking of as lord Indra and becoming happy She should drink soma rasa [for regular menstrual process]. This sma ras-drink, prevents skin diseases, reluctance for sexual feeling and impaired power that Joins mind and body. It arouses the sexual desire and makes this Apala Kanya' as lustrous as Sun. This sukta also asks the girls to follow Brahma charya before wedding and also suggests the use of 'Soma rasa' after marriage, if there are any problems.


This Rishika tells her husband not to roam here and there like a monkey. She says, ''you won't be satisfied sexually anywhere else than with me. Try to eradicate faults in you. Happiness lies within you Don't search it outside in the world.


It says that the wife is neither satisfied by ornaments nor by sweet words she is satisfied only when she is sexually fulfilled. Otherwise she will think of rejecting the husband. Therefore the husband should keep himself fit by drinking ghee required and satisfy the wife sexually.

Rishikas depicting universal truth.

Aditi - Swami Dayanand has titled this Sukta's Rishi as Wamdeva.

In edition by Satawalekar of Rugveda, 4-18-9 mantra is supposed to be Rishika Aditi.

Important highlights of this sukta-

1. The person who wants to achieve something shouldn't to the tradition, but invent novel ways.

2. Sometimes he should avoid the policy of pleasing the whole world.

3. In that period birth by operation other than vaginal birth was practiced.

4. The sine and guilt performed due to poverty and hunger were looked upon by mercy and sympathy.


Rishika Vishwawara Atreyi is the rishika of 5-28. she lived a virtuous path,

avoiding lust, anger, greed, etc she stopped the sinful actions so she is known as Atreyi Vishwawara. She is also supposed to be the 'dawn'.

She prays to 'Fire the agnidev of Earth and sun the God of Space that you confer great luck, wealth, marital happiness on your devotees and destroy their enemies.

This Rishikas asks you to rise before the dawn, along with the daily routine be engrossed in the occupation for earning the living She says that by praying to the Gods Agni and Surya in the dawn, brings you blessings.

Rule 10-12 is misbelieved to be Rishika Aditi Dakshayani' It states-

1. The birth [Utpatti] and destruction [pralaya] is a never ending cycle. One can't decide, which One is prior to other.

2. In Devyug or nature the life originated from invisible [vyakta]. All the forces of nature are present in the universe.

3.Before the sun rays the temperament, ego and evils are in force After the rising sun the nature cycle moves on.

4. After the creation of the universe the creatures related to nectar appeared.

Daughter in law of Indra-Wife of Sukra

This rishika has only one mantra 10-28-1. It states the duties of a daughter in law. The daughter in law should look after the comforts, food of her in-laws.

If the lady doesn't serve her in laws her daughter in law will also not serve her. Thus the social structure will be disturbed.

The modern people who do not follow these preaching and who are engrossed in worldly desires, who follow blindly the foot steps of western contries are suffering a lot

Savatri Surya

10-85 sukta of Rigveda and 14 th part of Atharvaveda is Vivaha Sukta. The rishika of this sukta is Savitri Surya. She is the scholar of Gynaecology, lustrous like Surya, rich and she spreads brightness and happiness.

'Marriage' is the system essential to run the society smoothly and restrict conflicts. In these suktas the concept of marriage, its proceeding nature are discussed. Description of an ideal husband and wife is portrayed. Some customs are also discussed.

1] To run a household successfully, wife with a same thinking and truth is required, while the husband should be capable, productive and should earn well.

2] If both are happy, they should live with their children and grand children until death They shouldn't accept vanaprasthashram or Sanyas.

3] There is not choice of divorce Husband and wife wish to live together for 100 years. Widow re-marriage is permitted.

4] Age limit is not fixed for marrying. Due to the change in air & water the feeling of bride change The period when wishes of a bride are strong it is the perfect period for marrying her.

5] Dowry is also discussed here. If the parents don't have sound economical position then the education and culture given to the daughter is the dowry itself.

6] Vedas depict the existence of 4 husbands. Actually There as the protectors. The girls first protector her father, second one is the teacher, third one is fire, and the fourth is the husband.

a] Due to discussion of 4 husbands the culture contradictory to Vedas, Muhammad and his followers accepted 4 wives.

B] 2 nd husband is gandharva or Gure. According to this statement, the leftists had the first sexual experience with the wives of followers.

c] Swami Dayanand has suggested Niyog' [to obtain child from other person, because the husband is incapable]

7] When the youth becomes capable he has a right to choose his second parents and wife.

8] A woman may have sexual relation with many men.

a] A wife cam maintain relationship with many husbands.

b] To satisfy the needs of society [sexual workers] are essential.

c] If the husband is infertile or after his demise a wife can maintain relationship with 2 men [not more than that] for the bearing of a child.

9]It is duty of the wife to look after the family welfare, giving them comforts. Then she becomes an Empress of the household.

10] for the well being of the society arms were given out. So the wife was named as Dakshina Prajapatya.

a] Those who guard the interests of others gain sound health and live a long life.

b] One who donates the institutions working for the benefit of nation, find his wealth increased 7 times.

c] Donors giving donation in abundance are respected everywhere.

d] Donating food is the greatest donation.

e] Donors get a beautiful wife and they live a happy life.

f] God protects the donors The donors always defeat their enemies.


Ratri Bharidwji is supposed to be Rishika along with Krishik Soubhan in Ruk-Sukta 10-12. Deity of this sukta is 'Ratri'

The person, or krishik ploughs the field He fills energy inside him, so is called Sobhar. After the hard work all day long, Ratri fills up the energy in night while they are sleeping. So she is known as Bharadwaji. The following Suktas direct and inspire us-

a] Everybody should work during the day and rest in the night.

b] The people become tired with strenuous work and struggle. The Ratri works on their tiredness and weakness and remove it.

c] All should rest like birds at night.

d] We pray to the Goddess of night, to protect us form wild creatures, thieves and we make the night pleasant by praying.

e] [Ruk 10-15]'s Rishika is Shraddha Kamayani and the deity is Shraddha [faith]. This Rishika has found the way through the faith and has hence become Kamayani Shraddha.

By keeping faith in truth people become pious in life. To become successful in life faith is very essential. Faith gives rise to a motive . The faith enable the man to reach the peak of luck.

Because of faith new routes can be explored, with faith one acquire wealth and reliability in the hearth of people. Hence one should always bear faith in his mind.

Indramatar-Rishika of Rug 10-153 is mother of great emotions, as well as the king (Indra) maker of Gods [Indriya].

she knows that Indra demolishes the Vritrasuras of lust and anger, makes himself and the society happy and strong. So she wants to make her child like Indra. She is satisfied by the love of husband The child cannot become Indra without her efforts.

Yami [Death]- Yami vaivaswati is the Rishika of Rug 10-154.

It states that people worship peace, lustre and sweetness in nature By penances many people stay away from sins. Some people sacrifice their life for welfare of the people and spread religion. Some people accumulate wealth in various forms for the nation.

One who has born to die. So we have to pray for the close ones who have died.

We pray for them to take birth in any class of people mentioned above. But this only can happen if the dead person has strived to expel the darkness or default with restraint.

So while praying for the dead we should also keep restraint in our future and also decide to expel the darkness of any kind

Shachi- 10: Rishika of Rug 10-159 Suktas is Shachi poulomi. This Sukta like Vagbhrani Sukta gives importance to one's self. This sukta is Sukta of self-praise This awakens self confidence, strength, enthusiasm and dispels down heartedness, hopelessness.

shachi means-subjects, languages and fate. all of there together in life is known as Shachi The daughter of the protector of self respect Pulom is pulomjahi. She becomes Shachi and creates enthusiasm, self confidence in society and nation and protects them from cruel, destructive, obstacles and makes them a Winner.

Everyday, with the rising sun, Shachi with new enthusiasm works for a bright future. She also awakens these emotions in her husband, son and daughter.

Sarparadny - [Rug 10-189]

To gain the knowledge about the serpent and its species, and to and bring it in practical use is the subject of this Rishika. This Sukta is repeated in all 4 Vedas Thus they are very important. The deity is Atma Suryova and Chhanda Gayatri. They show the importance of the sukta. It also is related to various important fields.

a] The great holy soul or his representative enlightens and makes life happy of human being from to death.

b] The earth which is colourful, revolves around sun on its orbit in the universe.

c] Good thoughts and good feelings dwell & works in the body for 30 muhurtas until the soul is residing in it.

Brahmavadini Rishikas deal with spiritual knowledge. (best soul Parmatma, living soul, mind and body) They follow the knowledge. They preach not only verbally but they prove it by actions also. Hence, it makes a great impact.

Sikata [Rug-K-9-86's 11 to 20 Mantra]

These 10 mantras belong to Rishika sikatanivavari, and the deity of these and the whole universe is Som. Yask believes the origin of Sikata in Kas Vikas Ne' 1-11-7 Nivaran Nyavrinit It is the origin of Nivavari. Shatpath in [1-1-1-11] has said that Sikata means semen. The one who wishes to develop, flourish who tries to prevent Kam Krodha sprinkle semen on som is the Rishika 'Sikata Ninavari'

Som means good som and also senen. Some is divine and is pleasant So the people who protect Som by mating get a child. And those who do introspection get calmness of mind, strength and sweetness.

To protect Som is very important. Restrained Som wine his enemies Making friendship with the winds, the person with restraint who destructs cruel and viscious people is necessary. It aptly describes the world saver Trit and brings sweetness in the world.

Originator-Som-Semen Satom=Trikal Sat Brahma=Som! Geeta Indu =Som never refuses the prayer made in company of Indra, his friend. He reaches the house of the devotee and helps in hundreds of ways.

The conclusion of Sikata Ninavari--

1] The Som, the God [Hari], Who removes grief resides in his friends house.

2] He is omniscient, powerful, benefactor and tries to keep everybody holy.

3] Realise his virtues,try to become his fried and be relaxed while carrying out our duties He never rejects the prayers

4] A true admirer only can admire Some he resides in the hearts of his admires. Admirers always remain happy.

In Rug 48-3 Kanva pragath narrates his experience.

Yugra Rishikas have Suktas of Rug 9-104

This sukta is also misunderstood and known as Parvat Narada Kanwi Rishi But their ideology is same.

Nara=try to remove ignorance from the society in which they live. Try to make them pure, assist them to progress.

Kayapo prithvi, born in the lower strata of the society, busies it self with Apsar Sou Apsa Karmasu Sarataha Karmo, and reaches the peak the of progress, is one of the Bhikharandinyo Rishika. The deity of this Sukta is Pawaman Som'

To elevate from the grounds to reach the peak of Devlok these rishikas state-

1]Sing praises of God for peace and happiness and remember him.

2]Become innocent and attractive in life like a child by performing Yadnya'

3] Along with producing and acquiring knowledge perform meditation to fill your life with enthusiasm and great virtues. Strengthen your mind and body. Pray to him, he will listen to it.

Oh! the God and protector of happiness, Som you are so divine and I wish to be your friend. By studying the Vedas on my own I try to render myself in your fragrance. Be my Guide, display greed, deceitfulness and sinful from me.

In Atharva 2-2 Brahmanawni has described Matrunama as Rishi praying and bowing to the creator In this Sukta, the God is said to be unique and is said to be worthy of praise and prayer We bow to him deity & Rishi of Sukta 4-20 is Matrunama. But the deity is called Devi ousha Dhe' Also it is same in Sukta 8-4

So we should accept Matrunama as a Rishika.

In this Sukta discussions of medicines on tendency of and medicines is done.

1] parmatma Surya, or King and mustard medicines are said to those who create the characteristics producing heat, which experiment it on dispelling cruelly, diseases, bad virtues. Using it practically and by eating it is profitable especially for women.

2] The defects run away by the use of the above mentioned medicines as a daughter in law stays away from father in law.

3] Rishika of Rug 10-39 & 40 is Ghosha ka kashivati. The deity of both Suktas is Ashwin [physiologist, medicine, surgeon]. In this Suktas the remedies of eradicating all diseases is discussed.

Conclusion of Brahmavadini Ghosha-

a] 'Pran sadhana' protects and keep away all diseases.

b] Brahmavadini also has a right to settle in household, enjoy love of husband and satisfaction of procuring child/son. She has to observe duties of married person.

c] people who perform meditation and live with the spouse with a restraint do not face any calamities. They lead a peaceful life. They wish welfare of each other and enjoy the pleasure of children.

d] One who strives hard is always happy is the proclamation of this Sukta.

Juhu: Juhu Brahma Jaya is the Rishika of Rug 10-109. Deity is Vishwe Deve Juva is the daughter of Brahma, she is also supposed to be the wife of Brahma in modern literature.

Brahmavadini Juhu's conclusions-

a] Brihaspati Brahmachari is only eligible to marry Juhu people having common talents, qualities, work, temper only should marry.

b] The bride and bride groom should meet each other and Judge each other before marrying. They shouldn't solely depend on the messenger or agent.

c] If the husband finds any drawback in his wife, then it is his responsibility to cure it.

d] Rejecting or hurting the bride after marriage is not legitimate. The results can be horrible/devastating.

Bagamruni : [Atharva 4-30]

Bagamruni is praising mother Veda, soul.

Brahmavadini Bagambhruni becomes one with great soul [parmatma]. Mother Veda is mother of universe. She says-

a] I were and bear the great divine ideas/ emotions in this world.

b] I according to the respective fate, I create living beings as Brahma, Rushi, Vipra and hosts doing 1-2-3.

c] I create egos in minds of people and arrange for wars and decrease the burden on the earth.

d] I Create, unite society, nation, universe. I cater to the needs of animals on the earth.

e] I am seen in the form of the world I was present before the occurrence of the earth and heaven and also shall remain after its destruction.

Godha Rishik [Ak-1-134-6.1] is the Rishika of these mantras. Rushi Mandhata is along with Godha Rishika which bears cow, vedavani in this Sukta.

The summary of this Sukta is-Restraint, like knowledge gives strength.

A monkey catches the branch with fore legs and eat leaves. In the same way the man should hold knowledge and restraint in his early age then carry out household activities. He should abide by the rules of life He shouldn't add or deduct form those mantras. Because mother vedas wishes happiness for everybody.

Rivers ; In a dialogue usually there is a man and a woman one who utters mantra is Rishika, and to whom it is sung is the Deity.

Based on this dialogue between River and Vishwamitra in Rug 3-33. Rivers are Rishikas, 'Natural rivers and Vishwamitra dialogues' do not find any reference. So river is sensory-flow and vishwamitra is goal set mind. The soul, becoming a representative of sensory organs talks with the soul, “Be obedient to me, so that I can reach the goal of attaining God.” The rivers of our senses, often flow in various ways and gives unhappiness. Vishwamitra, becomes son of Kushik who embraced the God. He hopes for his integrity and safety so the sensory- streams low to him and become his captive.

The people who swim through them, reach the goals. They plan and save them sevelves from sins and wrong deeds and become happy and wealthy.

Yami- Rug 10/10 is Yam-Yami sukta. Some think them as brother and sister, some think they are husband and wife, some think them as day and night.

I think they are young boys and girls who are studying under a common Guru. The girl is sexually aroused but the boys doesn't have any attraction about her. The girl thinks the gist of word pregnancy as living with in Gurus house and becoming his wife. He takes the meaning as mother's pregnancy and thinks her as a sister and thinks the sexual relations as sinful.

It is occasional, that the young couples are attracted to each other while studying together. They enter the marital bonding. Sometimes, it so happens that one who is uninterested rejects the love and establishes the relation of brother-sister.

Indrani - In Rug 10-86 Sukta there is dialogue between Indrani, Indra and Indrasut Vrishakapi' The base is God he is the best and is at the peak of universe So his off

springs-the human beings, shouldn't boast their qualities not should they praise any human being, but praise God.

The person having no restraint on mind, and who wanders everywhere keeping sexual relations is a monkey.

But the one who has control on his mind, inculcates the good virtues of God in him and becomes a matsarava. He gets sprinkled with piousness and happiness and he frightens the enemies.

Indrani is the best amongst the ladies. She is well versed with life, death, and pleasing the husband. If the husband and wife becomes Indra and Indrani themselves, then the house becomes a heaven. We find ideal mother, wife and daughter in Indrani

Veda's mantras always have 2 meanings, philosophical and highest knowledge of soul. The meaning should also be meaningful in reference with daily life. If the Rishis weren't interested in these fields, why would there be 2 meanings of Verses?

In this Sikta there are several words which are used while mating and fore-play These words should be pondered over by the thinkers.

Indrani of Shachi is wife of Indra. Shachi means intelligence, dialect and fate. She is supposed to be the strength of wives of God.[Atharva 13-4-41]

Urvashi ; Rug 10-95 is the dialogue between pururava and Urvashi. The Rishika is also, Urvashi. The scholars who looked at this Sukta from spiritual view, think Pururava as Brahma and Urvashi as Buddhi or intelligence.

Visualising the pure Brahma without any cover, the intelligence vanishes. The lust and anger also vanish.

In the reference of fate, pururava is cloud and Urvashi is lightening. Until the cloud is full of water the lightning, Urvashi remains with him. After mesh sign comes Vrisha sign. At that time the cloud is empty, so there is no lightning also.

In customary view, pururava is passionate man and Urvashi is his counter part . She has stated clauses as follows--

1] There has to be use of semen everyday

2] They both will always stay together

Mesha Shringi and Ela are sexually arousing. Gandharva had given them a plate which they threw away. When they went to fetch it the branches of Shami and Ushwitha were received. These are the medicines for virility and reproduction [Athsrva 6-11-1]

We can get following conclusions from this Sukta

1] Sex in newly married couple is strong. They can copulate thrice a day.

2] For keeping the wife satisfied, the husband should have control over his senses, drink ghee and donate semen to the wife during sexual intercourse.

3]Wife is never fully satisfied by flattery ornaments or wealth.

4]Visualising an obscene naked man, the woman feels nauseating. So the man shouldn't be seen naked except the bedroom.

Sarama ; Rug 10-108 is the dialogue between Sarama [Devshuni] and pani. The summary of this sukta is as follows--

The Demons, who have given up the virtuous path, but who are experts in merchandise, have tricked and captured the cows of Indra [the sensory organs]. These are the panijan.

Bramadeo the Guru of indra Deva, has sent Sarama, to find and free the cows. Sarama is suppressed intelligence, Demons try to frighten, and trick the Sarama But she tells them, "I am bot going to be frightened nor deluded by you" I respect the relationship between a brother and a sister. I know the Indra is victorious, he will surely defeat you.

This answer is golden and respected by the intelligent people. Such people can bring about the good fortune to the nation.

Shri Arvind has thought this Sukta, to be very important. He says that don't just take the words of the Suktas as spiritual knowledge or Yogic form but as a metaphor.

Think of cow as a pure knowledge, Sarama as suppressed knowledge hours as power, surya as divine light, dawa as divine flame, and soma as king of happiness or nectar.

Life on man is compared with success, Journey and war. In success, the soul is the host, heart is "Vedi", the divine goal as 'purohit'

In this way Shri Arvind has suggested new ways to explore the hidden meanings of Vedas.

'Rishi Mimansa'

'Rishi word is evolved from the verb 'Rishi Gatou'

Rishi is the person who abides by his knowledge, behaves accordingly and who acquires the decided goal.

Meaning of Nirutkar---

Nirutkar 1 to 20 include the Rishi who make penance to transform the micro sensual objects to or real or form. 'Rushis are logic' 13-12.

In absence of such Rushis, logic is also considered as Rushis. Rushis also means the rays of sun, senses, life.

In Amarkosh, we get the meaning of Rishis, as people who always speak truth or the people whose words become true. Swami Dayanand has given the meaning of a Rushi as-omniscient, the God who dwells in each particle of the world, a great yogi, one who understands meaning of Vedas, a great learner, teacher, scholar, acquirer of goal etc.

The scholar from western countries and Indian believe that some Rishis were creator of mantras. Some contemporary scholars think the names of Rishis as the headings or titles under which the meaning of mantras are stated.

They think them as the people who have endured the mantras. Rushi is always immortal while a deity can be mortal.

1] In all there are 525 Rishis. 454+11 [Rishis+Deities] 21 of them are Rishikas.

2] The main Rishis are-Goutam, Bharadwaj, Vishwamitra, Jomadagni, Kashyap, Vasishtha, Atri.

The tips to become Rishis described in Veda-Mantra are as follows-

1] The god which wanders through various species, make the man a Rishi according to his fate. without his help one can't become a Rishi.

2] The one who with great courage lookes after the welfare of people, a Brahmin, a creative person, director can become a Rishi.

3] One who tries to eradicate the defects and short comings in Brahmins, becomes their friend, a well wisher and doer is a Rishi.

Tag Names : Athrvaved,Rugveda,Ved
About Translator:Sou Lalita Marathe Pune
Other articles of this author :
1 Ved me Vishwas Or Sharddha
2 Vedon Me Gruhsthon ke Liye Nirdesh
3 Jivan Ko Safal Kaise Banaye
4 Surya Or Aditya
5 Parmeshwar Sab Ko Sukh Dukh Maptol Kar Deta He
6 Ushakal Me Jagkar Surya Sevan Ke Labh
7 Jivan Bhr Dugdh Pan Ke Labh
8 Ved Me Sadgruhastho ke Liye Nirdesh
9 Smarniya Tathya
10 Ved Ka Bahudha Chrchit Rognivarak Avam Dirghayu Pradsutra
11 Atam Sambodhan
12 Yadyana Japyadnesmi Geeta
13 Vedon Me Paap Ki Charcha Bhi He
14 Ved Me Nirdhith Karmo Ke Udaharan
15 Kamdhuk varda vedmata
16 Atyaya anadinaam Om Ya Brahma Or Prachlit Naam Eshvar Ya Radra
17 Ek Devta Ke Tin Naam
18 Vishnu Or Tvashta
19 Kamnapurti Me Sahhayak Vedmantra
20 Swasth Va Dirgh Jivan Ke liye Avashak Tattvs
21 Stuti Se Adrush Atmbal Prayati Ka Drush
22 Parmeshwar Ke Upnaam Padharth
23 Rut ke Anek Arth
24 Parmeshwar Ke Anshik Guno Ke Pratinidhi Devo
25 Vaidic Sapat Maryadon Par Vichar
26 Ved Ke Sarvakalik Ashirvad
27 Yajurved Ka Swadhay Yajurved Me Rashtr Vyavtha
28 Vedon Ki Rushikaye Or Bhartiya Sanskriti
29 Vaidic Shasan Ke Prarup Ki Zalak
30 Brahma Ke Saat Naam
31 Druk ek ma madal se
32 Kamdhuk varda vedmata Bhay Nivarak Mantra
33 The Place Of Unity Of Soul and Brahma
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