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 Title : Signiicance of the word UP nishad Author : Dayanand Bhargav

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The word UP – nishad is not the unfamiliar for Indians . The knowledge (education) lovers have heard, the names of the different UP- nishada’s like ken , Isha , Katha etc. It clearly indicates that the “UP- nishada’s are the names of those books, which discuss the knowledge of Brahma” The other name of the Brahma-Vidya is also Vedanta. So the established subject of the UP-nishada’s is Vedant and this thing is also known to those reader , who are more or less in touch with the Indian Literature. But , still, it is necessary to understand the meaning of the word ‘UP- nishad’ , in the Chapter of Gita’ , because, the word ‘Gita’ is itself the adjective of the ‘UP-nishad’. Today, we are using the word “Gita” as a common noun (Proper sign /consciousness) , but according to grammar , the meaning of the ‘Gita’ , is which is singed’ or ‘being singed’. When we say , it has being singed’ , then naturally , the question arises , that , what is that thing? Which has being singed’. The answer is being singed the UP-nishada’s The question arises� , who has singed? The answer is ‘being singed by the God’. So the Gita’s full (proper) name is ‘the UP-nishada’s singed by the God’ or “Bhagwat – UP- nishad” We have made the definitions of the words ‘Bhagwat’ , & ‘Gita’ in our prior (first) scripts / previous articles. In this script /article , the meaning (concept) of ‘UP-nishada’s is to be explained. It is better to explain in the beginning / start,’that the word ‘UP-nishad’ is regarded as a female in Sanskrit language. So the Gita is also female. In Hindi the use of the word ‘UP-nishad’ , is mostly made as male. So , ‘the singed ‘UP-nishad’ are not regarded as improper / wrong. It would be proper /right to say that ‘Being songed UP-nishad’ , from the view of the Sanskrit language.

Mantra – Brahman , Aranya and UP- Nishad :-

The question arises , that ‘ why the book famous with (by) the name Gita , is called the UP-nishad ? The UP-nishad is formed by (consists) (concludes) the books Isha , Kena , Katha etc , which is regarded as the last part of the vaidic literature.There are four parts of the vaidic literature Mantra, Brahman , Aranya and UP-nishad. The Gita is not the part of the vaidic literature , but still , how it is accepted as the UP-nishad ? To find the answer of this question , we have to search the (Meaning –use purpose) of the word , UP- nishad , in the Sanskrit literature.

We will see , the vaidic literature , First of all . The Shatha – path Brahman says that , ‘the language – speech –talk of this fire is the UP_nishad , so it is clear , here , that the meaning of the word UP-nishad is not concerned with any book . In� UP-nishad also , the word UP-nishad is not included in the books, reference- meaning. It is said that the work , which is followed by the knowledge , dedication and according to UP- nishad’s that becomes more fruitful / successful. Here also the meaning of the UP-nishad is some thing different , not specially the book.

It would be also important to (know) that , in what reference / in which symbolic – form the word, UP-nishad is used in the Mahabharat , because , the Gita is the part of the Mahabharat. It is said in the Shanti Parva that, ‘the Veda’s�� UP-nishad is real/true. In the truth / reality UP-nishad is life (Courage / boldness / patience /tenacity ). The Up-nishad of life /courage is sacrifice /donation. The UP-nishad of sacrifice is meditation. The UP-nishad of prayers is devotion. The devotion’s UP-nishad is pleasure. Pleasure’s UP-nishad is heaven and heaven’s UP-nishad is tranquility / quietness / salvation.

Here the word UP-nishad has came� eight times , and not even once the use of UP-nishad is made in the meaning of famous Isha , Kena , katha etc. books.

One more thing is to be taken into consideration , that in the line at the end of the Gita’s each chapter , the use of the word UP-nishad is in the plural (number /speech /word) not in the singular number, so that (by that) One thing is clear , that , the Gita is one book and not the group of the books. If the word UP-nishad would have been used to refer the only book Gita , then it was correct to be singular number (speech / word).

It was not at all necessary /essential to use it in plural number (speech word ) by saying ---------.

On the basis of all this , we can think that , in the incidence / matter of Gita, the use of the word UP-nishad is not as the book , but in some other meaning / use . Also , it is clear that the use of the word UP-nishad is made in some other reference , other than the book , in the Mahabharat UP-nishad and Brahman Granthas (books).

We have to see that which is that meaning , in which the Gita is called the UP-nishad. The examples given above by us, clearly indicates that , though the meaning / use of UP-nishad is confirmed _ establishes in the books of Isha , Kena , Katha etc. , there is some other meaning of this word. To find out the other meaning , other than the established / accepted , then we have to go in to the Yogic meaning. The Yogic meaning of the word UP-nishad is that , UP – to born / to form / origin / creation , Ni-determination /firmness. Shat-honour. Means the UP-nishad tells the origin by establishing some specific work by confidence. If the small boy/child is ordered to do some work , he asks what he should follow it ? suppose , the child is walking on the right side of the street /road and if we tell him to walk on the left side immediately he asks, why ? we teach him that , ‘the rule of walking on their left side on the road , is made for all the people , due to that all the people going in one direction , can travel in one side of the road and the vehicles and passengers travelling in the different directions can’t dash each other and the accidents would not happen. Walking on the left side is one duty action/work and due to that accidents would not happen , is the creation / achivement of that action/ work. By knowing this work of action , the child firmly decides by heart to walk on the left side of the road , this is the UP-nishad , of that work / action. The condusionis that , it is the UP-nishad of the work/creation , which teaches us to follow the duty.

The UP-nishad’s can be called the secrets of the duty /work/fate/destiny. The UP-nishad’s are knowledgeable but, they are not only giving the knowledge , but diverting / pointing towards the duties /work. That is way what ever has been said by me above, that the Chandogya UP-nishad says that the work done by the / with the UP-nishad becomes powerful mighty.

Many scholars would not like this meaning of the UP-nishad because the word UP-nishad , has been famous (for) in (as) the meaning of “pure-knowledge”, still the shruti like the Chhandogya UP-nishad restricts us in assuming the above meaning. Reality , is that Acharya Shankar has explained the matter of the Karma (destiny) and the protest against the knowledge, very boldly / strongly. So when , he made the Gita’s knowledgeable meaning , at that time , there was no other way for him to say that there is no support-explanation of the’Karma in the Gita’ on the other side. L.Tilak , explained the Gita’s meaning , pertaining to Karma , so he has to disapprove Shankaracharya. Actually it was not necessary for those two scholars , to do like that (it).The Shruti says that , ‘ the Science defines the Yagnya and the Karma as ………….. The Yajushi Shruti is saying by clear words, the matter of uniformity/combination of the knowledge and the ignorance.

The Shatpath Brahman is also saying the death and eternity (mortality and immortality) and “vU;ksU;kuq izfo"V “ the combination of one an other. It is all right, that the form of the knowledge is different and the form (meaning ) of the Karma is different.

The knowledge and the Karma (fate/destiny) are beneficial (useful) to each other :-

Todays , scientist get knowledge from the Karma. He makes one experiment in the laboratory , and on the basic of it , invents/discovers one theorem/law/rule. The experiment is the form of Karma and the siddhant is the symbol of knowledge, on the basic of that siddhant , he invents many techniques. Here the knowledge is the support / help/useful to (for) the Karma. Here actually the fact is clear that the knowledge and the Karma are both helpful to each other.

The scholars (knowledge oriented peoples) says that , their opinion is that , the knowledge of Brahma is opposing the Karma. When the living creature comes to know that , he is Brahma, then why he will do the Karma ? Unexpectedly , this thing is all right , but think that how Shankaracharya , having the knowledge of Brahma , was also suffered. But still in the span of 32 years , whatever the Karma he has done, no other karma Oriented can do .The� scholars (knowledge peoples)have the opinion that the persons who are having the knowledge of Brahma , do the occasional daily routine work , but not the creative / special , result oriented work. So there is oppose between the creative work and the knowledge.

See, the situation of the Gita. The war is also the desirable work, then why , the knowledgeable Shrikrishna , gave the inspiration of war to Arjuns ? The UP-nishad of the Gita is hiding in the answer of this question. The war is generally desirable war , and the cause of the binding, but it won’t be also the reason of the binding, if it would be done, with out any expectations & all the complexes , like win and defeat, death and alive , pleasure and misery, loss and profit. This is the teaching of the Gita.

The war is the denotation , any work done with the expectation, becomes the cause of the binding. To do the Sandhya Karma , is the daily routine. Imagine (think) if any person performs sandya-Karma , to get the praise from the people, that how much he is religious then the Sandhya, the ritual of the daily routine will become the desirable work , for him and the cause of binding. But , can we think , the work of the soldier , shameless (blamable)? If , he saves /Protects the nation with out expecting any praise or blame , keeping in mind his duties , by dedication. Shrikrishna says ,’ that it is blamable , if the soldier runs away from the war , by giving the excuse of the sin. If we would do like that, ’then their would not be any planning/management of the society or the nation. Arjuna was also doing the same thing and Shrikrishna stopped him from doing it.

“An exhibitor and the teacher in� pleasure� and misery :-

The question is rather complicated. The Brahma created the world and entered in it of his own accordingly. From the ancient time, the question is arising that , ‘why it was necessary for the complete (perfect) Brahma , to form the universe /nature ? This question arises at the time ., when take it granted ,(accept) that , each work /deed is done by the inspiration / expectation of some thing. Our this assumption is not also wrong , but is uncompleted / not full. Generally , the work / deed is done by the inspiration of desire , but some deeds /works are natural also. The reasons of the natural work /deeds are not seacrched. The Brahma is the formation / symbol of the knowledge and the fate / destiny. The creation / to form/ the formation of fertility is its natural work / duty. It is called the Brahma’s miracle / amazing creative work by the genius inventor of the science. The people take objection /(protests / resists) defames that by the Brahmas amazing work, they a trapped in the sadness / misery. Bhagwan in the form of Rama , gave us the teaching that , how the man can remain clam and stable in the Calamities – misery. The position / state of the Gita – Remaining stable / resolute /satisfied ‘ ,is totally an exhibitor and the teacher in pleasure and misery by keeping the equality / balance. The Brahma creates the nature� / universe , but does not involves in it. Then , how the creature / soul will run / escape away from the Karma fate / destiny , being the part of the Brahma. He has to do . the Karma’s/ deeds , but how those Karma’s would not be binding for him ? These secrets / or the key-points are explained in the Gita. Those secrets are called the UP-nishad’s

This description / writing or the words are not in vain / waste. The Children and older people , all are doing the work-Karma , but the work / Karma is not the burden for them. Some people sacrifice all the things by becoming an ascetic , by the fear of the Karma , but still they are not also escaped / away from the troubles. The ascetic / devotee is surrounded by the so many uncountable troubles / calamities like ashrams – matthas –devotees. It is said that, “an ascetic / devotee doesn’t gets trapped in all those troubles.” And it should be , like that only. But , the Gita says that , ‘ the man can do his duties , by remaining uninvolved , without getting trapped in those calamities.

The conclusion is that , ‘he may be familiar person or the devotee having the grid / attraction attachment is the reason of binding. The Gita supports the caste system (orthography). Everybody has to follow up his own related caste / race� and their rituals / laws /rules / bindings. If it is wrong to have the weapon by the ascetic/monk , in the war , then it would be also wrong for Arjuna , to have desire to beg , for food. The Karma is not escaped from the devotee or the familiar man. The attachment is to be stopped.

By doing the this Karma , also there is the secret of non attachment / binding on UP-nishad. The Gita is called the UP-nishad because it opens this secret.����

Translator� :- Dr. Anil Athavle

������������������������ 1244 , Sadashiv Peth ,

������������������������ Pune – 411 030.

Tag Names : Upnishad
About Translator:Dr.Anil Athavle
Other articles of this author :
1 Upanishad Shabdh Ka Tatparya
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