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Bhartruhari and Speech Principle: Bhartruhari, the great grammar expert commenced the ‘Agam Kand’ in his ‘Vakya Pradeep’ with this Shlok which means: The word, which is the immortal Brahma, becomes an evolution with the meaning, and the world process began from it.

Basically, this means that word power is immortal. At the end of the ‘Agam Kand’, this great thinker writes that the divine word power contracted because of those who could not speak pure language, (it was spoken in convoluted manner by common people).

From the beginning of the universe to the end of the Kalyug, the world’s language was pure. Before Shounak and Souri and Bhartruhari, what Vyadi wrote is unknown, or perhaps he too considered the word power to be immortal. Emperor Samudra Gupt has written in ‘Krishna Charit’, that Vyadi was also of the opinion that word power is immortal. Shounak, who lived at the same time as Vyadi, has described the Souri speech in his ‘Brihadevata’ in an extraordinary manner: In the aaaaMahayajna of Soudas, when the son of Vashishtha, Shakti, attacked Vishwamitra’s mind, he fell to the ground, speechless. For him, the speech called Brahmi or Souri from the Sun down to the earth and was administered to him by the Jamadagnis. This speech destroyed his speechlessness.

This is not the place to discuss serious subjects like how the Souri speech was brought to earth, how it removes the speechlessness, or why the Jamadagni’s administered it to Vishwamitra and brought him back to senses. These Shloks are mentioned here because the speech which is described as divine elsewhere, is called Brahmi or Souri here.

The Meaning of Souri: Souri means one which belongs to the Surs, i.e., Gods. It is also called Divya Vak. In the Shanti Parva chapter 231 of Mahabharat, Vyas says: The immortal speech, which is without any beginning or end, was liberated by Brahma Himself. Initially there was the divine speech, from which were born all the tendencies of the world. The Shlok of Bhartruhari mentioned above is written on the basis of this one.

The great fact about linguistics: This Shlok contains a scientific fact which is not found elsewhere. The speech which Brahma liberated was the divine speech, and Brahmadev, the creator of the human race brought it into being.

Yask and the divine speech: Muni Yask, who lived before Shounak, and who wrote his thoughts almost at the time of the Mahabharat War, writes: This speech is used to describe Gods as well as man.

The Gods such as Indra, Varun, Agni etc., who live in the sky, described by using words only, meaning that they used the same words.

Brahmin Books and the divine speech: In the Brahman Paths in the "Kathak’ and ‘Maitrayani’ Samhitas, this is written (Kathak Samhita 14/5): Gods living in the skies witness various kinds of Yajnas. I will perform this Yajna, and you perform that one. Thus, this Yajna was performed by Prajapati. Gods wanted a part in it. Prajapati and the Gods drank the Som Ras, and attained power. Thus, all want to drink the Som Ras. Speech is the place of birth of power. The speech evolved in four types in the philosophy. Three fourths among these Loks, one fourth among other living beings ---- this is the reason why a Brahmin speaks both speeches: the divine one and the one which man uses.

This means that the Brahmins knew the speech of human beings and Rishis, as well as that of Gods.

There is one more thought in this connection that needs mention here. At the time of performing a Yajna, the host and the Yagniks are requested to keep silence, as mentioned in The Shatapath Brahman (1/7/4/19). The secret behind this instruction is clear. A number of Mantras are chanted during a Yajna, and they belong to the divine speech. During the performance of a Yajna with the help of chanting Mantras, usage of human speech is destructive. The simultaneous use of two entirely different speeches becomes conflicting in the space. So, if a human being speaks during a Yajna, chanting of special Mantras in the divine speech should be performed, which will negate its effect. Lord Vishnu is the Supreme God. Mantras chanted by Him negates the ill effects of human utterances during the Yajna. This is mentioned in the Shatapath Brahman 1/1/4/20.

Divine Speech and Samamnaya: For explaining this, some Mantras or parts of them from the RigVed are mentioned below:

A. This Mantra (Rig 4/12/5) means that The One Who stabilizes Indra Loks and producing the speech, encourages the others for the sacrifice in the Yajna.

B. This Mantra (Rig 7/103/8) means that The Brahmins drinking Som Ras said.

C. This Mantra (Rig 8/100/1) which is mentioned in 11/28 Madhyamika Vyakhyan, means that When the speech spoke the divine, attractive speech, and it spread the food and water in all four directions, the divine speech gained extreme beauty.

D. In the Vak-Sukta of the RigVed (Rig 10/125/3), the Divine Speech Itself says, I am the divine speech who collects the crops, the knowledgeable and wise, the leading one in the Yajna substances. The Gods produced me, who stays in a lot of places and enters a lot of places.

E. This Mantra describes the divine speech very clearly. (Rig 4/100/11). It means that the divine speech was created by Gods. It is the most comprehensive one, which is spoken by all living beings. May we attain this divine speech which is so attractive and which collects food and juices for us, which is in the form of the Holy Cow, and which is praised by all. What sort of work of collecting the food and juices the Madhyamika Vak does, is a serious scientific subject. The only purpose of mentioning these Mantras here is to show that these Mantras describe the speech as the Divine Speech.

F. This Mantra (Rig 10/66/94) means that The Vasishthas from the space, who praise Gods, spoke in the speech which is like as old as their forefathers, for the good like Rishis.

In the above mentioned lines, the writings of Bhartruhari, Shounak, Vyas, Yask and Katha etc. show that they acknowledged to existence of the divine speech. Further, it is also explained that the divine speech is mentioned in Mantras.

Yask writes that human speech is completely different from the divine speech.

From all this evidence, it is proved that the whole world is an evolution of the divine speech, the convoluted speeches of the world were created because of the contraction of divine speech, the divine or Souri speech was also called Brahmi speech, the divine speech was thrown open by Brahma when the Gods started performing various Yajnas, the Indras create speech for Yajnas in space, Brahmins and Vasishthas, as well as Rishis and forefathers create speech.

All these subjects are so serious that a separate book can be written on each of them.

Gods, the Creators of Speech: This cannot be understood without the knowledge of creation of the universe. So, it needs some mention.

Form of Gods who created the Speech: The Aryan Shastras contain an extremely beautiful scientific description of the creation of the universe. The detailed knowledge of it is available in Manu Mahabharat and the Sarg-Pratisarg of Purans, as well as Brahman books. Sufficient material of the ancient Sankhya regarding creation of universe is available in these books.

Sequence of the Universe: The balance of virtues of the nature was disturbed with the inspiration of God. When the virtues were demoralized, Mahan was created. He creates nature with the inspiration of God. Thinkers of the past and pragmatists do not know about the condition before Mahan. The European scientists who try to find out the root cause of universe, have hardly been able to think. The conditions before this are still dreamlike for them. Mahan gives rise to ego.

Ego: Ego is the broader mind. All of it does not become bad. Only a part of it is bad. When certain lines appear in the Mantras as given in Atharva 1/1/2, it denotes the broader mind. The divine speech is concerned with this part of the mind.

Elements and Tanmatras: After the ego, the Tanmatras of elements are produced according to their order. This is the minutest form of the elements. So much so, that even the nature is called minute. After this, the elements are produced in their physical and material form.

Vishesh:. The elements in their material forms are called ‘Vishesh’. They can now be experienced or sensed with the body organs. Kanad Muni’s specla branch of knowledge ‘Vaisheshik Shastra’ because it exhibits the knowledge of these ‘Vishesh’ forms of elements.

Aapsrushti: Aap is water. Water became the all-pervading and important force in the nature. Shatpath Brahmans in 6/1/3/1 described creation of universe from water by Prajapati. Manu 1/8 too describes the same sequence of creation.

Hiranyagarbh: After the creation of the elements in material form and after the water became all-encompassing, it was contaminated by Hiranyagarbh.

The Shatpat Brahmans say: In the beginning, you were certainly in the form of water. Then the self-created Brahma thought about how to create population. He made efforts, he contemplated and produced Hiranyamand (a deity). Hiranyamand remained in the water for one year, after which the Purush was produced. He was Prajapati.

In the Vayupuran Chapter 5, it is described that the egg was golden and extremely bright like the sun.

In Manu 1/9, it is written that this Hiranyagarbh (or the glowing egg) was converted by the self-made Brahma into His body. The Brahmin Granths probably call this egg as Prajapati.

Surrounded by Water: This egg was produced from water, so it was surrounded by water. This water was the home of Lord Narayan.

In the Brahman literature, water is always regarded as feminine in the chapters relating to the creation of universe. (Shatpath Brahman 1/1/1/18). So, in the divine speech as well as in its follower language Sanskrit, water is referred to in feminine gender.

By ‘Aap’, actual water as we know it today is not meant to be addressed. The ‘aap’ is a stage between the Tanmatras and water as an element. This Vedic Mantra (RigVed 10/82/6) explains the fact that the golden egg (Hiranyand) was surrounded by ‘aap’. It says that initially, the ‘app’ held the egg, where all the Gods Vishnu resided. It was in the equilibrium state of Satva, Raja and Tama, and all the universe was in it.

The golden egg (hiranyagarbh) was not stationary, but it is yet to be found how its movements other than swimming were.

Another Richa presents the same meaning. (RigVed 10/121/7). It says that The ‘aap’, which was all encompassing, holding the egg, producing the fire, was certainly great.

This surprising scientific truth mentioned in the Veds is also referred to in the VayuPuran Chapter 4: The whole universe was inside it, including the moon, the sun, the constellations and planets and the air. Everything glowing or in darkness was in it. The egg was surrounded by ‘aap’.

The foam of the ‘aap’: Foam formed when the ‘aap’ got hot (Shatpath 6/1/3/2). Further, it is said that the foam generated particles of soil.

The Egg broke: The Egg broke in two pieces because of the contemplation of the Lord and gusty winds. (Manu 1/12). The lord created force and velocity in the winds by His contemplation. Chapter 24 of VayuPuran says that the name ‘Prabhanjan’ of the winds (tornado or destructive wind) is very famous.

The earlier chapter of the Puran says that wind was also present in the egg. The Lord inspired the wind with His contemplation. Thus, the incident took placed because of angry winds.

Creation of the Loks: When the great egg broke, from the dark side were produced the dark earth and other Loks, and from the lighted ‘Satvamay’ part were created the illuminated Loks of the above. As the ‘Satva’ part is smaller, it is always on the up side.

According to Many 1/13, sky and earth created from the two pieces of the great egg. Thus, the earth was created first, and the sun and planets etc from the sky were created later by Savita. After creation of the planets etc, the independent location of the sun was stabilized. Shatpath Brahman 6/5/3/1 says that the earth was the first creation among the Loks.

Just as Indra and other deities reside in the middle distance, the universal Gods reside in the highest of skies. The high skies came in to existence at the time of creation of the Loks. The divine speech or the knowledge about the Chief Deity of Vedic knowledge cannot be understood without the knowledge of the highest heavens. For this, various Mantras are stated below:

A. (RigVed 1/164/39, Nirukt 13/10): The Richas are in the immortal highest skies, where the universal Gods reside.

B. (RigVed 4/50/4)

C. RigVed 10/129/7): Thus, the Lord of this universe is in the highest skies.

D. (Yajur 13/14): O Fire, do not destroy these highest skies.

E. (Atharva 11/1/30)

F. (Taitiriya Brahman 3/9/5/6).

All these Mantras denote that the outermost boundaries of Om in the Adhyatmak Paksha and the three Loks from Brahma Paksha are called the highest skies or Uttam Nak.

The divine speech or Richas reside permanently in the Uttam Nak.

Chakshu: The illuminated piece of the egg became spherical once again because of its free velocity. Illuminated objects were thrown outside the illuminated piece, but not all of the objects were converted into the sphere. These objects are ‘Chakshu’ in the divine speech. RigVed 10/90/13 says that there are illuminated objects all over the Dyulok. The sun was created out of them. According to the Brahmans (Shatpath 8/1/2/3), This Chakshu is Jamadagni Rishi.

Savita: This was the glowing, round egg, in which resided the universe. RigVed 1/35/5 says that all the universe resided within Savita, which was created in the DyuLok.It was also called Prajapati as per Taitiriya Brahman 16/5/17.

But this Prajapati is different from the Hiranyagarbh Prajapati. From this Savita were created the sun and other Gods. Brahmans (Taitiriya 3/10/9/15 and Shatpath 1/1/2/7) say that it is so hot because it is created from Savita.

Later, the same Savita was also a God who stayed in the middle distance. Perhaps that is way Aitareya Brahman 1/30 says that this Savita ruled Gods.

Gods: There are thirty three main Gods, and they reside in the skies or in space. Lord Vishnu is completely different. All these Gods are forms of one Great Spirit. They are like various powers such as heat, energy, lightning, light etc. A lot of detailed information is available about the powers of some of them, such as Indra, Mitra, Varun etc. These Gods in the skies first used the divine speech.

Birth of Rishis: The original Rishes were born in the skies before, after as well as together with Gods. Some of them were Atharva, Bhrigu, Angiras, Vasishtha etc. The Seven Rishis were also included in them. In RigVed 1/83/5, it is said that Arharva paved the way first with the help of Yajnas, and then the sun was born.

This Atharva from the skies is closely connected with the creation of the Fire. The divine speech took the form of Vishwamitra or Vishwakarma. In some places, the Wind also is mentioned as Vishwakarma. (Kou. Brahman 10/5, Shatpath Brahman 8/1/2/9, 8/1/1/7).

Angiras was born out of embers. This was when the sun sis not have the element of Vaishwanar fire. It was like embers. Angiras was born from this.

Creation of the planets, constellations etc.: The sun separated from Savita and produced the planets etc.

Together, the sun and planets tied all the Loks with the Grahan Shakti (gravity force?), so they are called the Grahas or planets. Shatpath Brahman gives detailed description about their creation. The Harikesha type rays of the sun and the Apsaras are connected with this creation. The divine speech was being created at this time. (Shatpath Brahman 8/1/2/2).

The Earth: The earth was stabilizing itself because of the planets. According to the Brahman books, initially, the earth was in a semi-solid state, and the mountains floated on its surface.

Small particles of earth formed out of the remnants of the earlier earth. (Shatpath 6/1/3/4). While the sun and the earth were together in the Haranyagarbh, the Vaishwanar fire also assisted in creating the pebbles. (Shatpath 6/1/3/5). Pebbles formed out of these particles. The dead body of the Vritra also helped in this. (Shatpath 6/1/3/5).

This Vritra or huge cloud covered everything from the earth to the Dyulok. The ‘aap’ came down to the earth via this. Both of these together cooled the earth. The cold produced pebbles and stones and rocks, and the earth surface was solidifying. The mountains stabilized and stabilized the earth.

Movement and vibration of the Loks: The earth and other Loks vibrated earlier. They has not in their regular movements. Shatpath Brahman says (11/8/1/2) that these Loks were unstable just like a wheel of a chariot or that of a potter. Why did Prajapati do this? How could the Loks stabilize? Why did he stabilize the earth with mountains and rivers, and the space with the rays and the skies with the elements?

Mantras and stabilization of the earth: Initially, the earth shivered with pains, but Indra, who lived in the middle Lok, stabilized it. It is Indra who stabilized the shivering earth, stabilized the angry mountains, expanded the space and stabilized the skies. (RigVed 2/12/2).

Assistance by Savita: Savita of the middle Lok assisted Indra in this work. Savita stabilized the earth with Mantras. Savita stabilized the skies which were without any supporting poles. (RigVed 10/149/1).

Assistance by the directions (Dishas): The earth was stabilized because of the directions. (Shatpath 6/5/2/11, 6/7/1/16).

RigVed says (8/89/5) that when you were created for killing the Vritra, you expanded the earth.

Fire in the belly of the earth: There is still huge fire in the belly of the earth. The outer surface of the earth has cooled, but inside it still holds limitless fire. (Shatpath 14/9/4/21). This is why the Brahmans say that this is the fire (Shatpath 6/1/14, 14/9/1/14, 15/4/8).

All these Loks are in the skies on the support of each other. This fact is described in the Purans and Brahmans.

Divine Yajnas: The universe was being created, and divine Yajnas were taking place in the skies. These were strange kinds of Yajnas, and the Yajnas performed on the earth by human beings are copies of these Yajnas. The Mantras chanted in these were in the divine speech. Mentions are found in various Mantras and Brahman literature:

A. RigVed 1/164/50

B. M. S. 1/9/3 says that Prajapati Brahma was one and He thought that He should take the form of Yajnas and create people.

C. M. S. 1/10/16

D. Shatpath Brahman 1/10/16

E. M. S. Page 73

F. K. S. 6/11 says that in these Yajnas, Indra and other Gods, the Loks such as the earth, skies and space, the planets, ancestors and the Riahis etc. all were participating.

This is the greatness of the Veds where there are oceans of knowledge.

Chanting of Mantras in Yajnas: All the Gods and Rishis chanted mantras in the divine speech. The various sounds in different velocities and the divine songs which could be heard during the creation of the Loks among the Rishis, the Gods and the elements were nothing but these Mantras. The Lord Param Purush, Who makes the earth hot and the winds blow and the sun spreads light, and is the creator of all art, is the original inspiration behind them. So, The Mantras were not created by humans. They are divine, creations of Gods. The first Samgaans were performed by the Rishis and Gods in the skies. The Rishis on the earth learned these same Mantras.

RigVed 10/71 says that the Rishis got the divine speech via the Yajnas; those sounds entered their beings through the Yajnas, and they got them only later.

Clearly, the Rishis from the earth got the Mantras afterwards. Initially, the divine speech was known only among the Rishis from the Skies. The Rishis were more recent compared to them. The Mantras chanted during the divine Yajnas were ancient. The praises sung later were recent.

Proof that the speech was a divine creation can be found elsewhere as well. Rigved 10/90/9 is a famous Mantra which means that Richas and Sam were created out of that divine Yajna, The Yajuhu was created from it.

The original Rishis from the earth spread this knowledge on the earth with the blessings of God. It got out of the hearts of those Rishis who were lost in the love of knowledge. (RigVed 10/71/1).

Creation of the Chhands: This is another thing clearly mentioned in the Brahman literature. It is clear from this branch of knowledge that all of the Vedic Chhands were created initially in the skies. Perhaps the learned Aryans of the future may prove this after more minute examination.

Till now, the Rishis managed to maintain the purity of the original Mantras. The word "Vanhi’ was never used in place of ‘Agni’. True, the branches did undergo some changes, but the original knowledge was always maintained as it was. ‘Meelegnim’ was never used instead of ‘Agnimeele’. Obviously, the sounds produced by the Gods and Rishis in the skies can still bind man with the events that have taken place at that time, during a Yajna performed today. This is another reason which tells us that the Veds and Vedic speech were not human creations. This is the divine speech and it is eternal.

Thus, it is clear that human speech is not divine speech. Human speech is Sanskrit, which was created on the basis of the ancient Ved. Sweyambhuva Manu says that in the ancient, original universe, Lord Brahma fixed different names among the people in the Vedic words.

The ancient theory regarding the divine speech is described here in brief and in an easy manner. More research is needed for a new theory.

Tag Names : Ved,Kathak sahita
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