Ved > Articles > All

Introduction if we want to learn Indian culture, it is very important for us to learn Jain religion. The origin of Jain culture is very ancient. Jain logic and literature is spread in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Marathi language in the form of Jain books. For development and progress in life and for happiness it is important to know the Jain religion.

This is the scientific age. From twentieth century till twenty-first century, science has made tremendous progress. This kind of challenge to the peace of the world because along with physical and worldly development, new weapons are also being invented at the speed of lightening. This progress has happened not only in India but allover the world and the world is moving closer. But this closeness has not brought good this in human mind. Not only this, but the man himself is the enemy of man today and his ambition is rising at a harmful rate. In this world of science, things like religion and logic seem to disappear. At this time, for out own peace and the worldly peace also, we should also learn logic along with science.

Today man has won over, different elements like water, earth, sky and he has reached up to the sky. Now man has reached on the moon and he is trying to reach Mars and Jupiter. And because of this physical and worldly happiness, human emotions are being harmed and they have disappeared. Things like worship, adoring, benevolence, morals virtues are eloping today. Spiritualism and duty are disappearing. With the4 progress of science with the discovery of atoms and nuclei, we have put ourselves on the edge. End of the world is anytime possible now with the inventions of atom and nuclear bombs.

In this situation despair, spiritualism and philosophy are the only hopes of survival. It is very important to control science power with the help of philosophy. If we combine science with spiriual philosophy, it will surely take us to route of progress and not the way of destruction. Lack of peace and dissatisfaction are always the main reasons of destruction. A person with a good grasp over philosophy and spiritualism always can maintain balance in his behavior. He maintains his peace with satisfaction. Such persons are never about unhappy for getting something nor are they elated with they gain something. Philosophical thought and meditation are therefore very important in life.

Science is being given too much importance in life today and philosophy is being neglected. So the human being deprived of a happy and peaceful soul and mind. By practicing philosophy and spiritualism the evils and bad things of this universe can be won over. Science has made a progressive revolution in all fields. With scientific progress the humans have actually become stronger. But the most important question is how he will this power? This totally depends on the man himself whether to use this power for his progress or destructions and true guide for this is spiritualism. America created an atom bomb using atom power and killed millions of people by dropping it on Hiroshima and Nagasaki of Japan. Hence, if we want the human progress to be in the right direction, it is very important to blend science with spirituality. Thus we can say that spiritually and philosophy are the two wheels of this chariot called progress. And to keep this chariot moving, we have to take help of philosophy. Which is this philosophy, this is the question which has been asked for ages. In different aspects of Indian culture, Vedas, Upanishads, ancient learned and great people like Gautam Budda and Mahaveer have expressed many thoughts on this question. Such philosophy is separately and entirely found in "Jain Darshan".

Ancientness of Jain religion, There are two determinations about the creation and the beginning of the Earth. One is immortan and the second is natural. According to the people who believe in immortality, they say that the truth is immortal and untruth never lasts. According to them, the earth and cultures of humans on the earth are immortal and have been there since the creation of the earth, the land, wealth, and time will be measured differently as per the situation. The next step or condition of this change is collective and ultimate. This is called as "nature and final destruction of the world." According to the people who believe in nature the Supreme Being is the only power. This power creates the universe, world, and humans according to its wishes. On the earth after 14 ages, our priests taught us the difference between the good the testing based on this own characters. We had a lot of great people on this earth. And these people are called "Maanveeya Purush" (ideal men). Out of 63 Maanveeya Purush, Rushabh Dev was the first who is said to have founded Jain religion because Jain religion is immortal. It is difficult to guess the time of Rushabh Dev. Fortunately the life of Rushabh Dev is not only documented in Jain literature but also in Vedic literature. In first six chapters of Bhagwat Purana, it is givenin detail the nation of Rushabh Dev, his life, etc. All important incidents are similar to those in Jain literature. The names of his parents are documented as Nabhi (mother) and Marudev (father).

Shuklacharya, addressing shuklaya Tanavavatar King Parikshit, says, "O Vishnutatva, to fulfill the wishes of Nabhi Raja, and to manjifest the Dharma before Vatarashana Urdhwamanthan Shramana Rishi, Lord Vishnu incarnated Himself via the womb of Queen Marudevi, who was living in the thalamus." (Bhagwat Purana, 5, 3, and 20). Two things about the Bhagvat Purana are particularly notable. One needs to consider Rushabh Dev’s unique place in the Indian culture, his ancientness, his particularly important Dev’s unique place in the Indian culture, his ancientness, his particularly important position in the traditional literature, etc. There is absolutely no difference of opinion between Hindus and Jains about the greatness and venerability of Rishabh Dev. For the Jains, he is the First Tirthankar, and Hindus consider him to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, even before Lord Ram and Lord Krishna.

The purpose for this incarnation is explained in the Bhagwat Purana, and on this basis, it has unequivocally proved the very close links of the tradition of the Shramana Dharma with the Rigve, the most ancient book of the Indian literature. The establishment of the religion by Vatarashana Shramana Rishi, and the purpose of the incarnation of Rishabh Dev has been described.

Referene of the Jain Religion in the Rigved: The Rigved is said, to be th oldest book in the Indian literature. The Rigved is alos the oldest among the four
Veds. In the Rigved, it has been mentioned that the incarnation of Vatarashana Muni was for the establishment of the religion, and that of Rishabh Dev was for preaching and showing the way to attain the Ultimate Realization (release of the soul from further transmigration) by living life like the lotus, which is always in water, but still remains dry. There is one Rucha from the Rigved about Vatarashana Muni, which is particularly worth mkentioning. The meaning of this Rucha (Rigved, 10, 136, 2-3) is: "Atuvriyarya Darshi Vatarashana Muni covers himself with soil, he looks soiled. After a prolonged worship of the Supreme Spirit (Brahma), he glows radiantly and looks full of splendor like a divine spirit. Our mind became completely free of all the mortal and material world, and with unbounded ecstasy, we attained the lightness of air, and this is the reason the common mortal persons like you can only see my outer, visible countenance, but fail to see my real, innermost self," In the Rigned, as also in this Rucha, hair and hairstyle has also been praised along with the description of Vatarashana Muni. ‘Keshi’ means wearing matted hair rolled up above the head like ascetics.

After reading Suktas regarding this hairstyle, and the biography of Rishabh Dev in the Bhagvat Purana, it can be seen that there has been ample discussion on the Suktas of the Rigved.

Both show that Vatarashana Muni wears no real clothes as such (he keeps himself covered with the sky), is a Jatadhari (wears his matted hair rolled up above the head) adorns himself with soil, is completely quiescent, and his face bears completely ecstatic expressions. The gentle hairstyle of Rishabh Dev can be seen in Jain sculptures of the ancient times, as well as of today.

Of all the Tirthankars, only Rishabh Dev’s hair is shown to be curly, and this peculiarity is present even in the ancient images. Rishabh Dev is also called ‘Kesari’ or ‘Kesari Nath’. The mention of his peculiar hairstyle can be found in the Jain Puranas. That ‘Keshi’ and Rishabh Dev are one and the same, has been proved in the Rigved. After it was proved that Vatarashana Muni, Nisarg Sadhu, Keshi Muni and Rishabh Dev mentioned in the Rigned is the same person, the ancient tradition of the Jain religion can be seen much more clearly. The creation of the Veds in their present form is probably between 2000-3000 BC. The Rigved is said to be the most ancient among all the four veds, and the mention of Vatarashana Muni and Keshi Rishabh Dev can be found in the Ruchas of the Rigved. From this, we can infer that the Jain religiontoo has been in existence since 3000 BC. The Jain tradition is different from the Vedic tradition, because according to Vatarashana Muni, the Vedic Rishis were not ascetics who had relinquished all this material, but they were householders who had wives, children etc. Vatarashana Muni, on the other hand, ahd relinquished everythis - his home, wife, children and all the worldly possessions. Moreover, he has even relinquished all clothing, and leads the life of a Bhikshuk, i.e. one who begs for so much food only as much as is enough for survival.

From the above discussion, it can be seen that the jain tradition is at least as ancient as the Vedic tradition, if not more.

There have been twenty four Tirthankars after Bhagwan Rishabh Dev. Vardhaman mahavir was the Twenty Fourth Tirthankar. The easy, natural, virtuous way of life based on non-violence for the self, followed and taught by Rishabh Dev, may possibly be the Rishabh Dharma, and this way of life came to be known as the way for the liberation of the self.

The culture preached and followed by him became popular as the Shramana Culture. After Rishabh Dev, Ajit Nath and the other Tirthankars futher developed this culture and propagated it in the form of a way of life based on morality and virtuous conduct.

2. Sindhu Culture : At the same time as the Shramana Culture was developing in Madhya Pradesh, it was also developing in the regions of the rivers Narmada and the Indus, In the beginning years of the twentieth century, the Archaeology Deparment of India carried out extensive excavations and research in the Larcana District of Sindh Province and Mangujari District of the Punjab Province, and reveaked before the world a highly advanced culture of the ancient time, The period of this culture is said to be from 6000 BC to 2500 BC. Syatuettes and images of nude men have been discovered among the relics of the Indus culture. Many such images can be seen. Some coins show the images of Yogi Viveta performing the Karyotsarga Dhyana. This Karyatsarga Dhyana is peculiarly Jain.

In the Puranas, this Karyotsarga Mudra is mentioned repeatedly in relation to the penances of Rishabh Nath. Statuetts of Jain Rishis in the postures of Karyatsarga Mudra can be seen from the beginning of the first millennium Adm in various styles. The word ‘Rishabh’ in Sanskrit means an ox or a bullock. Jain Rishabh Nath is the symbolic representation of an ox. Many coins from the Indus culture have been etched with the Karyotsarga Dhyana images of Rishabh Dev. Prof. Pran Nath Vidyalankar considers the religion of the Indus culture to be the same as the Jain religion. One coin (no. 449) found in the excavations shows the letters "Nineshwar" (Jin-Issar) etched clearly on it. The symbol of the Seventh Tirthankar, Suparshwanath, is the Swastika, and the Swastika is said to have been extremely popular among the people of the Indus culture.

According the Dr. Harris, "Mohenjo Daro’ was known as ‘Nandur’ or Makara Desh’ in the ancient times. The Nandur script is considered to be the first script. Makara was the Ninth Tirthankar, whose symbol is ‘Pushpa Dant’. The worship of his idol being performed in the ancient times shows the harmony and similarity between the ancient Indus culture and the Jain religion. It is certain the originally, this culture was not Aryan or Vedic. According to P.S. Kanthasha, Digambar Dharma Yog Matga, the worship of symbols such as Rishabh etc. indicate the fact of the extr-ordinary co-existence and harmony between the ancient Indian Indus culture and the Jain religion. Nemi Nath, also known as Arishta Nemi, the Twenty Second Tirthankar, was the first propagator of the renaissance of the Shramana Dharma. After him, Tirthankar Parshwanath rejuvenated the Shraman Culture, and after him, the Twenty Fourth Tirthankar,Bhgwan Mahavir was the chief leader of the movment of the rehuvenation of the Shramana Dharma in the post-Mahabharat period.

������������������������������������������������������***

dd
 Title : JAIN RELIGION AND THE HISTORY OF THE JAIN RELIGION Author : Smt Reshma Jain

Introduction if we want to learn Indian culture, it is very important for us to learn Jain religion. The origin of Jain culture is very ancient. Jain logic and literature is spread in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Marathi language in the form of Jain books. For development and progress in life and for happiness it is important to know the Jain religion.

This is the scientific age. From twentieth century till twenty-first century, science has made tremendous progress. This kind of challenge to the peace of the world because along with physical and worldly development, new weapons are also being invented at the speed of lightening. This progress has happened not only in India but allover the world and the world is moving closer. But this closeness has not brought good this in human mind. Not only this, but the man himself is the enemy of man today and his ambition is rising at a harmful rate. In this world of science, things like religion and logic seem to disappear. At this time, for out own peace and the worldly peace also, we should also learn logic along with science.

Today man has won over, different elements like water, earth, sky and he has reached up to the sky. Now man has reached on the moon and he is trying to reach Mars and Jupiter. And because of this physical and worldly happiness, human emotions are being harmed and they have disappeared. Things like worship, adoring, benevolence, morals virtues are eloping today. Spiritualism and duty are disappearing. With the4 progress of science with the discovery of atoms and nuclei, we have put ourselves on the edge. End of the world is anytime possible now with the inventions of atom and nuclear bombs.

In this situation despair, spiritualism and philosophy are the only hopes of survival. It is very important to control science power with the help of philosophy. If we combine science with spiriual philosophy, it will surely take us to route of progress and not the way of destruction. Lack of peace and dissatisfaction are always the main reasons of destruction. A person with a good grasp over philosophy and spiritualism always can maintain balance in his behavior. He maintains his peace with satisfaction. Such persons are never about unhappy for getting something nor are they elated with they gain something. Philosophical thought and meditation are therefore very important in life.

Science is being given too much importance in life today and philosophy is being neglected. So the human being deprived of a happy and peaceful soul and mind. By practicing philosophy and spiritualism the evils and bad things of this universe can be won over. Science has made a progressive revolution in all fields. With scientific progress the humans have actually become stronger. But the most important question is how he will this power? This totally depends on the man himself whether to use this power for his progress or destructions and true guide for this is spiritualism. America created an atom bomb using atom power and killed millions of people by dropping it on Hiroshima and Nagasaki of Japan. Hence, if we want the human progress to be in the right direction, it is very important to blend science with spirituality. Thus we can say that spiritually and philosophy are the two wheels of this chariot called progress. And to keep this chariot moving, we have to take help of philosophy. Which is this philosophy, this is the question which has been asked for ages. In different aspects of Indian culture, Vedas, Upanishads, ancient learned and great people like Gautam Budda and Mahaveer have expressed many thoughts on this question. Such philosophy is separately and entirely found in "Jain Darshan".

Ancientness of Jain religion, There are two determinations about the creation and the beginning of the Earth. One is immortan and the second is natural. According to the people who believe in immortality, they say that the truth is immortal and untruth never lasts. According to them, the earth and cultures of humans on the earth are immortal and have been there since the creation of the earth, the land, wealth, and time will be measured differently as per the situation. The next step or condition of this change is collective and ultimate. This is called as "nature and final destruction of the world." According to the people who believe in nature the Supreme Being is the only power. This power creates the universe, world, and humans according to its wishes. On the earth after 14 ages, our priests taught us the difference between the good the testing based on this own characters. We had a lot of great people on this earth. And these people are called "Maanveeya Purush" (ideal men). Out of 63 Maanveeya Purush, Rushabh Dev was the first who is said to have founded Jain religion because Jain religion is immortal. It is difficult to guess the time of Rushabh Dev. Fortunately the life of Rushabh Dev is not only documented in Jain literature but also in Vedic literature. In first six chapters of Bhagwat Purana, it is givenin detail the nation of Rushabh Dev, his life, etc. All important incidents are similar to those in Jain literature. The names of his parents are documented as Nabhi (mother) and Marudev (father).

Shuklacharya, addressing shuklaya Tanavavatar King Parikshit, says, "O Vishnutatva, to fulfill the wishes of Nabhi Raja, and to manjifest the Dharma before Vatarashana Urdhwamanthan Shramana Rishi, Lord Vishnu incarnated Himself via the womb of Queen Marudevi, who was living in the thalamus." (Bhagwat Purana, 5, 3, and 20). Two things about the Bhagvat Purana are particularly notable. One needs to consider Rushabh Dev’s unique place in the Indian culture, his ancientness, his particularly important Dev’s unique place in the Indian culture, his ancientness, his particularly important position in the traditional literature, etc. There is absolutely no difference of opinion between Hindus and Jains about the greatness and venerability of Rishabh Dev. For the Jains, he is the First Tirthankar, and Hindus consider him to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, even before Lord Ram and Lord Krishna.

The purpose for this incarnation is explained in the Bhagwat Purana, and on this basis, it has unequivocally proved the very close links of the tradition of the Shramana Dharma with the Rigve, the most ancient book of the Indian literature. The establishment of the religion by Vatarashana Shramana Rishi, and the purpose of the incarnation of Rishabh Dev has been described.

Referene of the Jain Religion in the Rigved: The Rigved is said, to be th oldest book in the Indian literature. The Rigved is alos the oldest among the four
Veds. In the Rigved, it has been mentioned that the incarnation of Vatarashana Muni was for the establishment of the religion, and that of Rishabh Dev was for preaching and showing the way to attain the Ultimate Realization (release of the soul from further transmigration) by living life like the lotus, which is always in water, but still remains dry. There is one Rucha from the Rigved about Vatarashana Muni, which is particularly worth mkentioning. The meaning of this Rucha (Rigved, 10, 136, 2-3) is: "Atuvriyarya Darshi Vatarashana Muni covers himself with soil, he looks soiled. After a prolonged worship of the Supreme Spirit (Brahma), he glows radiantly and looks full of splendor like a divine spirit. Our mind became completely free of all the mortal and material world, and with unbounded ecstasy, we attained the lightness of air, and this is the reason the common mortal persons like you can only see my outer, visible countenance, but fail to see my real, innermost self," In the Rigned, as also in this Rucha, hair and hairstyle has also been praised along with the description of Vatarashana Muni. ‘Keshi’ means wearing matted hair rolled up above the head like ascetics.

After reading Suktas regarding this hairstyle, and the biography of Rishabh Dev in the Bhagvat Purana, it can be seen that there has been ample discussion on the Suktas of the Rigved.

Both show that Vatarashana Muni wears no real clothes as such (he keeps himself covered with the sky), is a Jatadhari (wears his matted hair rolled up above the head) adorns himself with soil, is completely quiescent, and his face bears completely ecstatic expressions. The gentle hairstyle of Rishabh Dev can be seen in Jain sculptures of the ancient times, as well as of today.

Of all the Tirthankars, only Rishabh Dev’s hair is shown to be curly, and this peculiarity is present even in the ancient images. Rishabh Dev is also called ‘Kesari’ or ‘Kesari Nath’. The mention of his peculiar hairstyle can be found in the Jain Puranas. That ‘Keshi’ and Rishabh Dev are one and the same, has been proved in the Rigved. After it was proved that Vatarashana Muni, Nisarg Sadhu, Keshi Muni and Rishabh Dev mentioned in the Rigned is the same person, the ancient tradition of the Jain religion can be seen much more clearly. The creation of the Veds in their present form is probably between 2000-3000 BC. The Rigved is said to be the most ancient among all the four veds, and the mention of Vatarashana Muni and Keshi Rishabh Dev can be found in the Ruchas of the Rigved. From this, we can infer that the Jain religiontoo has been in existence since 3000 BC. The Jain tradition is different from the Vedic tradition, because according to Vatarashana Muni, the Vedic Rishis were not ascetics who had relinquished all this material, but they were householders who had wives, children etc. Vatarashana Muni, on the other hand, ahd relinquished everythis - his home, wife, children and all the worldly possessions. Moreover, he has even relinquished all clothing, and leads the life of a Bhikshuk, i.e. one who begs for so much food only as much as is enough for survival.

From the above discussion, it can be seen that the jain tradition is at least as ancient as the Vedic tradition, if not more.

There have been twenty four Tirthankars after Bhagwan Rishabh Dev. Vardhaman mahavir was the Twenty Fourth Tirthankar. The easy, natural, virtuous way of life based on non-violence for the self, followed and taught by Rishabh Dev, may possibly be the Rishabh Dharma, and this way of life came to be known as the way for the liberation of the self.

The culture preached and followed by him became popular as the Shramana Culture. After Rishabh Dev, Ajit Nath and the other Tirthankars futher developed this culture and propagated it in the form of a way of life based on morality and virtuous conduct.

2. Sindhu Culture : At the same time as the Shramana Culture was developing in Madhya Pradesh, it was also developing in the regions of the rivers Narmada and the Indus, In the beginning years of the twentieth century, the Archaeology Deparment of India carried out extensive excavations and research in the Larcana District of Sindh Province and Mangujari District of the Punjab Province, and reveaked before the world a highly advanced culture of the ancient time, The period of this culture is said to be from 6000 BC to 2500 BC. Syatuettes and images of nude men have been discovered among the relics of the Indus culture. Many such images can be seen. Some coins show the images of Yogi Viveta performing the Karyotsarga Dhyana. This Karyatsarga Dhyana is peculiarly Jain.

In the Puranas, this Karyotsarga Mudra is mentioned repeatedly in relation to the penances of Rishabh Nath. Statuetts of Jain Rishis in the postures of Karyatsarga Mudra can be seen from the beginning of the first millennium Adm in various styles. The word ‘Rishabh’ in Sanskrit means an ox or a bullock. Jain Rishabh Nath is the symbolic representation of an ox. Many coins from the Indus culture have been etched with the Karyotsarga Dhyana images of Rishabh Dev. Prof. Pran Nath Vidyalankar considers the religion of the Indus culture to be the same as the Jain religion. One coin (no. 449) found in the excavations shows the letters "Nineshwar" (Jin-Issar) etched clearly on it. The symbol of the Seventh Tirthankar, Suparshwanath, is the Swastika, and the Swastika is said to have been extremely popular among the people of the Indus culture.

According the Dr. Harris, "Mohenjo Daro’ was known as ‘Nandur’ or Makara Desh’ in the ancient times. The Nandur script is considered to be the first script. Makara was the Ninth Tirthankar, whose symbol is ‘Pushpa Dant’. The worship of his idol being performed in the ancient times shows the harmony and similarity between the ancient Indus culture and the Jain religion. It is certain the originally, this culture was not Aryan or Vedic. According to P.S. Kanthasha, Digambar Dharma Yog Matga, the worship of symbols such as Rishabh etc. indicate the fact of the extr-ordinary co-existence and harmony between the ancient Indian Indus culture and the Jain religion. Nemi Nath, also known as Arishta Nemi, the Twenty Second Tirthankar, was the first propagator of the renaissance of the Shramana Dharma. After him, Tirthankar Parshwanath rejuvenated the Shraman Culture, and after him, the Twenty Fourth Tirthankar,Bhgwan Mahavir was the chief leader of the movment of the rehuvenation of the Shramana Dharma in the post-Mahabharat period.

������������������������������������������������������***

Tag Names : Ved
Print
Download pdf
Link to this

Link to this
Use this URL to link to the article from your blog or site:





To view the content of Vedpradip, you need to be registered user.

For registration, please Click Here.

For login, please Click Here


Close